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WH 17/19/20 European Renaissance and Reformation/Age of Exploration
Transcript of WH 17/19/20 European Renaissance and Reformation/Age of Exploration
AD 1300s - AD 1500
What was the Renaissance?
Literal translation means "rebirth"
It lasted from Medieval times to the early modern world
It was a shift from Agriculture to an Urban society
There was a changing world view - a rebirth after seeing the medieval world.
People had reawakened interest in classical Greece and Rome
They still spoke Latin in church as well as in scholarship (universities)
2. There was a new emphasis on human experience and individual achievement
The Medieval world focused on religious beliefs and spirituality - the Renaissance focused more on the here and now - what is happening and how it is happening.
Classics Lead to Humanism
3. Humanism is an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance focused on education & the classics
They began to study classical Greece and Rome to understand their own times - most were pious Christians, focusing on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues that had occupied previous thinkers.
Humanists believe that education should stimulate the individual's creative powers. Instead of trying to make classical texts match Christian teachings as they did in medieval times, they began to study them to understand ancient Greek values
Humanists emphasized rhetoric, poetry, and history. Humanists began to popularize thetudy of history, literature, and philosophy.
Italy: Cradle of the Renaissance
Renaissance began in Italy, but over the next hundred years, it spread to the rest of Europe, transforming the entire Western world.
Since Italy was the center of the Roman empire, it was a logical place for this reawakening to emerge.
1. Italy's location helped make it the starting point of the Renaissance because the Mediterranean trade brought wealth there.
Rome was the seat of the Catholic Church, and important patron for the arts.
Italy's location encouraged trade with markets in the Mediterranean and Africa - these trade routes also carried new ideas, important in shaping the Renaissance
The Renaissance Revolutionizes Art
Reflecting humanist thought
Renaissance artists reflected the new ideas of humanism by portraying well known figures of the day
Revived many classical forms of art
Realistic Painting and Sculpture
Invented Perspective - 3D art
Drew from live models
5. Leonardo da Vinci
Painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
Mona Lisa portrayed humanist beliefs by the
depiction of her half-smile
His notebooks are a testament to his genius and creativity
Created the La Pieta, David, Sistine Chapel ceiling among other great arts
He blended religious and classical styles together
He was best known for his tender portrayals of the Madonna and baby...
Section 2: The Renaissance in the North
As Italy was flourishing, Northern Europe was still recovering from the ravages of the Black Death.
By the 1400s, the northern cities began to enjoy the economic growth needed to develop their own Renaissance.
8. In 1455, Johann Gutenberg produced the first complete Bible using the printing press
Printed books are cheaper and easier to produce
The printing press made books become more readily available and allowed more people to learn how to read.
Humanists stress education and classical learning to bring religious and moral reform
Erasmus spreads humanism to wider audience and calls for a translation of the Bible into the vernacular
9. Sir Thomas More wrote Utopia, which describes an ideal society where people live in peace and harmony
William Shakespeare expresses universal themes and Renaissance ideals in his poems and plays
He was a master of the use of the English language.
He revered the classics and drew on them for inspiration and plots.
Many of his plays examine human flaws.
The three characteristics of the Renaissance:
Humanism, Individualism, and Questioning Reality
Section 3 - The Protestant Reformation
Background to the Reformation
In the 1500s, the Renaissance in northern Europe sparked a religious upheaval that affected Christians at all level of society.
Northern Europeans called for church reform that would shatter Christian unity - this was called the Protestant Reformation.
Many people in northern Europe were poor and led violent lives.
Humanists found this as a fertile land to spread their ideas.
Their ideas were easily spread to these areas due to the printing press.
Northern Europeans used humanist ideas to question the central force in their lives - the church!
Beginning in the Middle Ages, the church had become caught up in worldly affairs
Popes competed with princes for political power
Popes led lavish lifestyles - they had beautiful churches with elaborate art which increased the fees for marriage, baptisms, and they started selling indulgences.
Christian Humanist such as Erasmus urged a return to the simple ways of the early Christian church
1. Christian humanists stressed Bible study, and rejected the worldliness of the church
Early Revolts Against the Church
Long before the Protestant Reformation, a few thinkers protested against the Church more strongly.
John Wycliffe in the 1300’s used sermons and writings to attack the church
Jan Hus led a reform movement, he was executed for it
Martin Luther: Catalyst of Change
In 1517 protests vs. Church broke out into a full scale revolt - Martin Luther, a German monk triggered it
In the town of Wittenberg in 1517, Johann Tetzel set up a pulpit on the outskirts of town, asking for people to buy indulgences to help rebuild the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome.
Tetzel claimed that anyone who bought indulgences would be granted access to heaven as well as all of their dead relatives. This was the final outrage for Luther.
Luther drew up the 95 Theses, or arguments, against indulgences and other church practices.
2. 95 Thesis Main Ideas:
Indulgences had no basis in the Bible
The Pope could not release souls from purgatory
Christians could only be saved through faith
He posted his list on the door of the All Saints Church.
Luther ignited a firestorm - His 95 Theses were copied and spread ll over Europe
The Church wanted Luther to recant, but he refused.
Luther developed a more radical doctrine, urging Christians to reject the authority of Rome
In 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
Charles V summoned Luther to the Diet at the City of Worms.
Luther went, expecting Charles V to defend his works, Charles asked him to recant, but Luther again refused
Charles made Luther an outlaw, making it illegal for anyone to give him food or shelter
3. Luther believed Christians can only be saved through faith
Except some sacraments, but rituals cannot ease sin – ONLY GOD CAN
2 Sacraments Lutherans believe in:
2. Holy Communion
4. Luther's ideas spread mostly in Germany and Scandinavia
- German speaking areas
Elected Councils to be head of Church
Bible alone is source of truth
People read and interpret the Bible for themselves
The Peasants' Revolt
German peasants revolted in 1524, calling for an end to serfdom and demanding other changes to their harsh lives.
Luther denounced the peasant revolt as it grew stronger, helping nobles suppress the rebellion, killing tens of thousands of people.
The Peace of Augsburg
Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back into the Catholic Church, but with little success.
After a few brief wars, Charles and the Princes reached a settlement.
They signed the
Peace of Augsburg
allowing each prince to decide which religion-Catholic or Lutheran- would be followed in his lands.
Northern Germans chose Lutheranism while southern Germans remained largely Catholic.
In 1536, Clavin published a widely-read book that set forth his religious beliefs and how to run a protestant church
Shared in Luther’s beliefs
His own beliefs:
Predestination - God had already predetermined who was going to Heaven
Calvin believed the world was divided into two kinds of people: Saints and Sinners
Calvin set up a Theocracy in Geneva
Calvinist were punished if they were caught:
Fighting, swearing, laughing in Church and Dancing. Thought to be perfect community
Spreads to Germany, France, Netherlands, England, and Scotland
Set off Bloody religious wars
In Germany: Catholics and Lutherans opposed Calvinist
In France: French Calvinist v. Catholics
Section 4 - Reformation Ideas Spread
Throughout Europe, Catholic monarchs and the Catholic Church fought back against the Protestant challenge by taking steps to reform the Church and to restore its spiritual leadership of the Christian world.
Several Protestant sects break away from their original churches.
The English Reformation
In England, religious leaders like John Wycliffe had called for Church reform as early as the 1300s. By the 1520s, some English clergy were exploring Protestant ideas. The break with the Catholic Church, however, was the work not of religious leaders but of King Henry VIII.
Henry VIII Seeks Annulment
King Henry VIII had stood so firmly against the Protestant revolt that the pope even named him "Defender of the Faith."
In 1527, however, King Henry, who had been married for 18 years, decided he needed a change...
He was married to a Spanish woman, Catherine of Argon, one living child “Mary Tudor” - Why is this a problem for Henry?!
Henry felt England’s stability depended on him having a male heir
Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn, Catherine’s servant
Catholic law does not permit divorce, so Henry asked the pope for an annulment, or cancellation of marriage.
The pope would not permit it because he did not want to offend Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
BREAKING WITH THE CHURCH
1. Henry created the Protestant Church of England,
also known as the Anglican Church
He appointed Thomas Cranmer as the archbishop, who annulled the King's marriage.
In 1533, Henry Married Anne Boleyn, she gave birth to his child, Elizabeth
Strengthening the Church of England
1536 to 1540 Henry took Church lands and redistributed to Nobles and loyal people
By doing this, he secured their support for the Anglican Church (Church of England)
He rejected protestant doctrine.
Aside from breaking away from Rome and allowing use of the English Bible, Henry kept most Catholic forms of worship.
When Henry died, he had only one son, Edward VI, who was 9 years old. (Henry married a total of 6 times)
Edward was extremely Protestant
Parliament passed Protestant reforms that sparked uprisings
Uprisings were harshly suppressed
When Edward died in his teens, Mary Tudor took over and tried a return to Catholicism
Under Mary, hundreds of Protestants were burned at the stake for Heresy, including Archbishop Cranmer
The Elizabethan Settlement
3. Queen Elizabeth, the Protestant daughter of Anne Boleyn (and Henry) took over in 1558.
She had to determine the future of the Church of England...
Moving cautiously, she made reforms called the Elizabethan Settlement
She compromised and created a policy that both Protestant and Catholics felt comfortable with.
The Church of England preserved much Catholic ritual, and it kept the hierarchy of bishops and archbishops.
Elizabeth did not call herself "supreme head" of the church, but reaffirmed that the monarch was the "supreme governor" over spiritual matters in England.
Elizabeth restored a version of the Book of Common Prayer, accepted moderate Protestant doctrine, and allowed English to replace Latin in church services
She was able to restore unity in England
Pope Paul III led the Catholic reformation, 1530s and 1540s.
He set out to restore the moral authority of the church and roll back the Protestant tide
The pope called the Council of Trent in 1545 to establish a direction that the reform should take.
The council met on and off for 20 years
Salvation comes through faith and good works
The Bible was the major source of religious truth, but not the only source
Stiff penalties created for worldliness, corrupt Clergy
Also established schools to create better educated clergy who could challenge Protestant teachings.
Empowering the Inquisition
Pope Paul strengthened the Inquisition to fight Protestantism.
The Inquisition was a Church court set up during the Middle Ages.
It used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy.
It prepared the Index of Forbidden Books, a list of works considered too immoral or irreligious for Catholics to read.
Founding the Jesuits
In 1540, the pope recognized a new religious order, the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits - founded by Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius, recovering from a shattered leg, created a strict program for the Jesuits which included spiritual and moral discipline, rigorous religious training and absolute obedience to the Church.
Jesuits became advisers to Catholic rulers, helping them combat heresy.
Teresa of Avila
Teresa of Avila symbolized the renewed feeling of intense faith for the Catholic Church.
Teresa, entered a convent in her youth, but found the convent routine not strict enough so she created her own order of nuns.
They lived in isolation, eating and sleeping very little, and dedicating themselves to prayer and meditation.
Impressed by her tactics, the Church asked her to reorganize and reform Spanish convents and monasteries.
For her work, Teresa of Avila was canonized, or recognized as a Saint by the Church.
Legacy of the Catholic Reformation
By 1600, a majority of Europeans remained Catholic. Tireless reformers had succeeded in bringing back Protestant converts.
Renewed piety found expression in literature and art.
Charity flourished and church abuses were reduced.
Protestantism did have some success in Europe... The Reformation and the Catholic Reformation stirred up intense feeling and debate.
Religious conflict played into heated disagreements about government, which would erupt into war throughout much of Europe.
During this period of heightened religious passion, persecution was widespread.
Both Protestants and Catholics fostered intolerance and persecuted radical sects like the Anabaptists (meaning Baptized again) and the Jews.
For many Jews in Italy, the early Renaissance had been a time of relative prosperity.
Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, but were allowed to stay in Italy, but
pressure remained strong on Jews to convert
In 1516, the Jews in Venice were forced to live in a separate quarter of the city called a
- other cities soon followed.
Martin Luther expected the Jews to convert to his teachings - when they did not, he expelled them from Christian lands
German princes followed suit and in the 1550s, Pope Paul IV placed added restrictions on Jews.
Even Emperor George V began to ban Jews from Spanish territories and new American colonies.
From the early 1500s on, many Jews migrated to the Mediterranean parts of the Ottoman Empire and to the Netherlands in order to avoid persecution.
4. The city that produced many Renaissance artists and scholars with the support of the Medici family was the city of Florence
The Medici family made its profit off of banking, which had branches throughout Italy and other major cities in Europe.
Renaissance scholars looked down on the art and literature of the Middle Ages - they wanted a return to the learning of the Greeks and Romans.
Artists and scholars drew inspiration from the ruins of Rome.
Western scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts.
Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
During the Middle Ages, Europe suffered from both war and the plague.
Nearly 60% of people died during this time period.
Those who survived began to question institutions of the Middle Ages that were unable to prevent such large losses of life, including the Church.
In northern Italy, writers and artists began to express this new spirit and to experiment with different styles.
Ch 17, Section 1 & 2 - Things to Know
1. What made Italy become the starting point of the Renaissance and why?
2. What was there an emphasis on during the Renaissance?
3. What is an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance focused on education & the classics called?
4. What city produced many Renaissance artists and scholars with the support of the Medici family?
5. Who drew the Mona Lisa and how did it portray humanism beliefs?
6. What was the everyday language of ordinary people called?
by Niccolo Machiavelli, what does he advise rulers to do?
8. Who produced the first complete Bible using the printing press?
9. Who wrote Utopia and what does it describe?
10. Name the three characteristics of the Renaissance.
Patrons of the Arts
Church leaders during the Renaissance beautified Rome and other cities by spending huge amounts of money for art.
They became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists.
The Renaissance Man
Writers introduced the idea that all educated people were expected to create art. A man who excelled in many fields was praised as a "universal man," later renamed a "Renaissance man."
The Renaissance Woman
Upper-class women were expected to know the classics and be charming, but could not seek fame.
James the Greater
Simon the Zealot
Renaissance Writers Change Literature
Renaissance writers produced works that reflected their time, but they also used techniques that writers rely on today.
Dante, a medieval writer, wrote in
vernacular, the everyday language of ordinary people
, rather than in Latin, allowing more people to read his writings.
Renaissance writers wrote either for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects, beginning trends that modern writers still follow today.
Francesco Petrarch created the sonnet - a 14-line poem
Giovanni Boccaccio created writings that present both tragic and comic views of life.
7. The Prince
by Niccolo Machiavelli
examines the imperfect conduct of humans. It explains that rulers can gain and keep power in spite of his enemies.
He advises rulers to be ruthless in achieving goals
He began by telling that people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt.
To succeed, a ruler must be as strong as a lion and shrewd as a fox. He might have to trick his enemies and even his own people for the good of the state.
Toward the end of the 15th century, Renaissance ideas began to spread north from Italy. This will be discussed in Section 2!
Chapter 17, Sec 3 - Things to Know
1. Christian humanists stressed ____, and rejected the worldliness of the _____.
2. What were the three main ideas of the 95 Theses? (long answer)
3. Who believed that Christians could only be saved by faith?
4. Where did Luther's ideas mostly spread?
5. What allowed each prince to decide which religion-Catholic or Lutheran- would be followed in his lands?
6. What did Calvin believe the world was divided into?
17.4 & Age of Exploration- Things to Know
-1. Who created the Protestant Church of England?
2. What made Henry "the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England" and who did he execute for opposing it?
3. Who was the Protestant daughter of Anne Boleyn (and Henry) took over in 1558?
-4. What were the motives/motto of those who explored new lands?
5. Pope Alexander VI negotiated what treaty between Portugal and Spain over territories in the new world?
6. The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas is known as the ___.
7. The buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas was called the ___.
8. Africans transported to the Americas were part of a transatlantic trading network was called ___.
9. The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later North and South America was known as the ___.
1st Wife - Catherine of Aragon - Birthed a girl - Marriage went badly and got Henry forced a DIVORCE.
By the early 1400s, Europeans were ready to venture beyond their borders.
The technology wasn't invented to sail outside of known territory and make it back until the end of the Renaissance, which spurred a new spirit of adventure and curiosity, as well as greed.
The 1400s brought a desire to grow rich and spread Christianity.
New sources of wealth were out there, they just had to be found - Their motives were for
"God, Glory, and Gold"
Portugal lead the way with Asian exploration and trade, making Spanish monarchs very envious.
Searching for a new sea route to Asia, Italian sea captain Christopher Columbus convinced Spain to finance a bold plan to sail west in order to reach Asia.
He didn't reach the Indies, as he had thought, but unknowingly opened a way for European colonization of the Americas, forever changing the world.
The Portuguese believed Columbus had claimed lands in Asia that they had previously claimed. War was eminent between the two naval powers.
Pope Alexander VI stepped in to mediate, negotiating a peace between the powers, known as the
Treaty of Tordesillas
, where both sides agreed to honor a Line of Demarcation, dividing the new world between Spain and Portugal. Peace was reached.
With Portuguese explorer, Vasco da Gama's discovery of a sea route to Asia, Europeans could now trade with Asians fairly easily.
This forced the English and Dutch to challenge the Portuguese holdings in the Indian Ocean around 1600. Eventually, the Dutch East India Company pushed the Portuguese out of the area.
The British and French gained footholds in the area around 1700.
As claims were made in the Indian Ocean, eyes began to turn towards China and Japan, but these powers were able to limit European Contacts in their borders, allowing the preservation of their traditions in isolation.
Competition for wealth in Asia among Europeans was fierce. With Christopher Columbus having discovered the Americas, bringing together the peoples of Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Jealous of Spanish land claims, other nations joined in, claiming new lands. Here's a list of who claimed what:
Portugal claims modern-day Brazil
Spain claims Mexico
France claim New France in modern-day Quebec and Haiti
England claims New England and Jamestown, Barbados, and Jamaica
Dutch claim New Netherlands - Hudson River area and Aruba
All of this was done at the expense of the Native populations of the areas.
The Columbian Exchange and Atlantic Slave Trade
The colonization of the Americas dramatically changed the world. It prompted both voluntary and forced migration of millions of people. It also led to the exchange of new items that greatly influenced the lives of people throughout the world.
. The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas is known as the
Ships from the Americas brought back a wide array of items that Europeans, Asians, and Africans had never seen before:
Tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao beans, corn, potatoes, and turkeys.
Items sent to the Americas:
Various fruits and vegetables, essential grains, horses and cows, and of course diseases.
Setting the Stage: The Slave Trade
Sugar and tobacco farms required a large supply of workers to make them profitable.
European owners had planned to use Native Americans as a source of cheap labor, but millions of Natives died from disease, warfare, and brutal treatment.
Therefore, settlers in the new world began looking towards Africa for new workers, resulting in the brutalities of the slave trade.
A History of Slavery in Africa
The spread of Islam into Africa, Muslims believe that prisoners of war could be bought and sold as slaves.
Between 650-1600 Muslims transported 17 million Africans to Muslim Lands
Europeans See Advantages of African Slaves
Africans were already exposed to disease, experienced farmers, they were less likely to escape because of new lands, and easy to distinguish in the new world because of their skin color
7. Atlantic Slave Trade-
Buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas (1500-1870=9.5 Million Africans to the Americas)
1.7 million to West Indies - 2 million to the US by 1830
Many slaves were brought by local Africa rulers to traders waiting on the shores of Africa, in exchange for gold, guns, and other goods.
A Forced Journey
Africans transported to the Americas were part of a transatlantic trading network known as the
1. Manufactured goods sent to Africa, traded for slaves
2. Slaves transported to West Indies
3. Merchants bought sugar, coffee, and tobacco and transported to Europe to be sold.
Several different triangular trade routes were established
The Middle Passage
. The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later North and South America was known as the
The middle leg of the transatlantic trade triangle.
Africans were hipped and beaten as they were packed onto disease ridden boats.
Roughly 20% of the Africans on board each slave ship perished during the journey, from beatings, disease, or suicide.
Consequences of the Slave Trade
In Africa, numerous cultures lost generations of their fittest members to European traders and plantation owners.
Although unwillingly, African slaves contributed greatly to the economic and cultural development of the Americas - mostly in labor but culturally as well.
The influx of so many Africans to the Americas also has left its mark on the very population itself, leaving substantial African-American populations from South America to the Caribbean and North America alike.
The influx of African slaves brought about the economic revolution in European nations, allowing them to create a national identity, helping European monarchs etch out their power as rulers in an ever-changing Europe.
Who is she?
Where was this painting today?
It was the first painting to use 1-point perspective (the background).
2' 6" T x 1' 9" W - Took 4 years to paint
Cloth merchant, Francesco del Giocondo's wife
The Louvre in Paris
The reaction of the 12 apostles when Jesus told them that one of them would betray him.
It is located in the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy
15' 1" T x 29' 0" W - Took about 3 years to paint
Where is it located?
What was it showing?
The Last Supper
Name the apostles (and Jesus) from left to right...
Jesus laying in the arms of his mother, Mary after execution.
Considered to be the most perfect marble sculpture ever made.
5' 9" x 6' 5" - Took 2 years to make
What is it depicting?
Statue of David
The biblical hero, David, portrayed by Michelangelo - symbolizes the defense of civil liberties
Weighs over 12,000 lbs.
17 feet tall - was made to be placed on top of the Florence Cathedral (Duomo). Never made it there.
Act of Supremacy
” was passed,
making Henry "the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England."
Many loyal Catholics did not accept the Act of Supremacy and many were executed for treason.
Among those executed was Thomas More
, who served in Henry's government but tried to resign in protest. More was later canonized (recognized as a saint) by the Catholic Church.
2nd Wife - Anne Boleyn - Birthed Elizabeth and had a still-born child and cheated - BEHEADED
3rd Wife - Jane Seymour - Gave birth to a boy (Edward) - DIED due to post-natal problems
4th Wife - Anne of Cleves - UGLY! - 6 month contractual marriage marriage - DIVORCED
5th Wife - Catherine Howard - Cheated on him - BEHEADED
6th Wife - Katherine Parr - No children with Henry - Henry died and she SURVIVED to re-marry someone else.