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Waste Water Management

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Deepak Hegde

on 24 December 2012

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Transcript of Waste Water Management

Appalling Facts! So why Waste Water Management?? Firstly, let's distinguish between the types of wastewater. To eradicate as many of the "apalling facts" presented above.
To prevent a future generation that fights over a single drop of water.
Nature never expected to get exploited this badly so its our time to pay back nature. Grey water
Water containing detergents and soaps
Consists of bacteria, organic particles, plastic, nitrates, phosphates, oil (grease), sodium. Waste
Water
Harvesting by
Neil Das
Deepak Hegde
Aiswarya R Minikutty Cool Facts about Water! 74% of earth's surface is just water! Water is a universal solvent. 237ml of water can be refilled 15000 times for the cost of buying merely 6 soda bottles! The weight a person loses directly after intense physical activity is the weight from losing water, not fat. Don't stop working out because of this! Black water
Water that contains human bodily waste products
Pathogens, feces (solid waste), urine. Grey Water Treatment Pre Treatment Screening Screen is kept at the outlet of pipes to collect greywater from
different sources.
This removes floating matter like paper, plastic and food particles. Junction Chamber A small rack containing sponge or foam is provided close to the top of junction chamber (or equalization tank) .
This removal of froth generated from bathroom and washing place due to use of soap. Equalization Tank Required to balance flow of grey water.

Provides adequate aeration.

Facilitates settling of coarse particles (>10mm size).

Removes settleable solids like organic wastes. Secondary Treatment
Filters Upflow - Downflow Filter Its a horizontal set of filters which helps is the purification of grey water.

The filter media varies with the column and may contain gravel, coarse and, fine sand and other material such as wooden chips, charcoal etc.

Number of columns depend on quality of greywater and expected use of greywater.

An optimal upflow-downflow filter contains four columns. Multimedia Filters Its a set vertical of filters which helps is the purification of grey water.

Multi-media filters are filled with a variety of media in order of increasing size, for example, fine sand, coarse sand, gravel, stone, and then wood chips to a total depth of 0.75 m to 1 m.

A vent is provided at the top for letting out odorous emissions, if generated in the filter.

Media can be taken out for washing periodically depending on the greywater characteristics and quantity. Wetlands Its a filter where water rises through several grades of gravel and plant roots.

It slows down many of the suspended solids become trapped by vegetationand settle out.

Other pollutants are transformed to less soluble forms and are taken up by plants or become inactive. Wetland plants also foster the necessary conditions for microorganisms to live there.

These excess nutrients are often absorbed by wetland soils and are taken up by plants and microorganisms. How can the now purified grey water be used? Irrigation Cleaning Construction Flushing Black Water Treatment Anerobic Digestion Before the actual digestion, the water goes through the same pre filterisation process as grey water. Hydrolysis: A chemical reaction where particulates are made soluble and large polymers are converted into simpler monomers. Acidogenesis: A biological reaction
where simple monomers
are converted into volatile
fatty acids. Acetogenesis: A biological reaction where volatile fatty acids are converted into acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanogenesis: A biological reaction where acetates are converted into methane and carbon dioxide, while hydrogen is consumed. Anaerobic digestion is a complex biochemical process of biologically mediated reactions by a consortium of microorganisms to convert organic compounds into methane and carbon dioxide.
It is a stabilization process, reducing odor, pathogens, and mass reduction. Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. This biogas can be used directly as cooking fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality biomethane. The use of biogas as a fuel helps to replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate also produced can be used as fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion facilities have been recognized by the United Nations Development Programme as one of the most useful decentralized sources of energy supply, as they are less capital-intensive than large power plants So whatever I've explained so far, can be put into a flowchart and that would look something like this... Cost of Grey water treatment
Construction : INR 50,000 (approx)
Maintainence : INR 2,500 p.a (approx) Cost of Black water treatments
Construction : INR 4,00,000 (approx)
Maintainance : INR 50,000 p.a (approx) Now's the best part... How does contribute to saving water? It is a cost efficient method that can be employed in the unhygienic and impoverished rural areas where money and electricity are scarce.

Prevents extinguishing ground water levels. Gives time for earth's water bodies to replenish. Eco- friendly methods don’t upset the delicate balance of nature. Creates a sustainable environment to live in. Case Study Place: Muthukappali
Distance : 200 Kms from Banglore
Number of people: 1250
Number of households ( approx. 4 members per house) : 260
Source of water: Ground water
Average water use ( per household): 250 liters
Average annual income (per household): 10,000 – 15,000
Source of electricity: Government sourcing INCOME Daily wage workers earning Rs 200-300 per day.
Farmers with land earning more than Rs 20000 per annum.
Landless farmers earning around Rs 10000 per annum Drainage System The village has an open drainage system that connects only 30 houses out of 260 houses and channels just grey water.

The rest of the houses use pits as latrines. These pits are covered once they get filled. What does this look like? Poorly organized drainage system.

Electricity is available for only 5 hrs; half of which is phase 2 and the other half phase 3 supply.

Uneducated people (i.e. 2 in every 10).

No toilets at home; only washing and bathing rooms where the grey water directly flows into the ground.

Caste differences

Monetary insufficiency Solutions to overcome these issues The methods employed are mostly mechanical and not electricity based.

An organised drainage system has to be put in place to facilitate transport of water to the treatment plant.

Because a proper system for solid matter and urine drainage doesnt exist ; we have to focus our method to grey water management. Cost for 10 houses For ten house whose usage of water is going to be around 200-250 liters of water daily the cost is as follows:
CAPITAL (for purification of 2000 liters of water) Rs 30000(approx)for creating sewage channels
Rs 45000(approx) for grey water treatment plants
TOTAL=Rs 75000/-(approx) Maintainence Maintenance includes labor for two people working twice a month.
GREY WATER: Rs 2000(approx)per year + commission fee for labor
The treatment plants have to be cleaned once every couple of weeks. Why implement our idea in this village?? The village has got 1200 acres of cultivable land which is lying barren because of unavailability of water. The commencement of cultivation in these lands will reduce food shortages and will also aid in the increase of their annual income. Thank you ....
Hope you all liked it..... Before we end let me tell you one good thing about not having water ....... WE DON'T HAVE TO STUDY CHEMISTRY!! A typical individual in India uses 300 liters of water each day; but A typical individual in Gambia uses just 4.5 liters of water a day. Every 20 seconds 100 babies are born; but a child dies of water borne diseases about every 21 seconds!
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