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Techno-Politics and the Techno-Epistemology Framework

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Transcript of Techno-Politics and the Techno-Epistemology Framework

Techno-Politics
and the
Techno-Epistemology Framework

,הרבחו היגולונכט ,עדמל תינכותה
,ןמיירפ ירוא
ןליא-רב תטיסרבינוא
2015 ראוני
....האצרהב המ
דובעש
שפוח
תינטשפה השיפתה
היגולונכטה לש
תויטילופ-ונכט תודמע לש םורטקפס
שפוח
דובעש
םייתד
םיטסינמוה
םיקורי
םיטסיכרנא
היליפ-ונכט
היבופ-ונכט
םיילארוטספ-ואנ
םיטידול-ואנ
םיינאטרביל
םייביטברסנוק-ויב
םייביסרגורפ-ונכט
תונכס לש היגולופיט
ישיא
ימוקמ
ימלוע ללכ
תלבסנ הנכס
תינפוס הנכס
תינוכמ תבינג
ילכלכ רבשמ
ןוזואה לוליד
םיכרד תנואתב תוומ
םע חצר
-X-
BANG
(ETC Group 2003)
Bits
Atoms
Neurons
Genes
GRAIN
(Mulhall 2002)
Genetics
Robotics
Artificial Intelligence
Nanotechnology
GRIN
(Garreau 2005)
Genetic
Robotic
Information
Nanotechnology
GNR
(Kurzweil 2005)
Genetics
Nanotechnology
Robotics
NBIC
(Roco & Bainbridge 2003)
Nanotechnology
Biotechnology
Information technology
Cognitive science
תושונאל רתויב תונכוסמה תויגולונכטל םינוקירטונ
תויגולונכט תונכסל םירושקה םיאשונ
(תיקלח המישר)
GMOs
תיניערג היגרנא
עזג יאת
טוביש
....לשמל
Facebook
Bitcoin
Net Neutrality
המדקה
תיגולונכטה
תוברעתה
תיתלשממ
היירפה לש תויגולונכט
םיאצאצ תדמעהו
םדאה תחבשה לש וא
הביבסה תוכיא
תויגולונכטה ןווגמ
...ידי-לע עבקיי
Techno-Epistemology
SCOT
Philosophy
of
Technology

Epistemology
General Epistemology
Individual
Social
Social Epistemology
Techno-Epistemology
Technological
Techno-Politics

Techno-Epistemology

large-scale analysis

the place of politics and economics in the processes of knowledge generation and distribution
SCOT
יטילנא
ילאטנניטנוק
Philosophy of Technology
Epistemology
of
Technology
X
Layers of
epistemic analysis
Unit(s) of
analysis
General Epistemology
Individual
Social
Social Epistemology
Layers of
epistemic analysis
Unit(s) of
analysis
Applied Techno-Epistemology
Direct Access
"Thought transfer"
kind of subjectivity
act as a single agent
Scientists
Automated
scientific processes
Epistemology
belief
proposition
memory
causal reasoning
General Epistemology
testimony
evidence
trust
experts
Social Epistemology
Knowledge generation and distribution -
Epistemic Differences
תיעדמ הירואית
יעדמ רושכמ לש היגולונכט
General
Social
Trust
Epistemic trust
Social trust

PoT
Epistemology
do not accept Trust between machines

~moral agent
lack a human quality

Technology
“sources of moral action” Floridi
do have "moral efficiency" (Johnson 2006)

Ethical trust:
norms and standards which are embedded

explicitly express "unseen" trust,
i.e. social norms and standards,

and it is our responsibility
to embed them in technologies
STS
Classical VS Anti-Clasical
Trust
Epistemic Trust
Social Trust
Philosophy of Technology
+
Epistemology
Can we trust technologies?
Technologies
do NOT qualify as
Moral Agents
lack a specific human quality
“sources of moral action” (Floridi 2011)


do have "moral efficiency" (Johnson 2006)
BUT.....
Risk
Uncertainty
Objective
Subjective
Knowledge
Knowledge about lack of knowledge
Truth
Belief
Techno-Trust
Epistemic Trust
in technologies
Social Trust
in technologies
[...] combination of knowledge and lack thereof contributes to making issues of risk complicated from an epistemological point of view
Hansson, Sven Ove, "Risk", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
A word on epistemology, risk, and uncertainty...
Impossible
No
Yes
ףקיה
גוס
Bostrom, Nick. 2002. Existential risks.
Journal of Evolution and Technology
9(1).
תועד יקוליחב תויגוסו תויגולונכט
(Goldman's terminology)
e.g. Laudan 1984
Epistemologists about
epistemology of technology:
,ןיא
היהיש ןמזה עיגה לבא

!בוט ברע ךשמהו
,הדות
e.g. Rowland (2005); Humphreys (2005)
e.g. Humphreys (2009); Meijers & De Vries (2009); Miller & Record (2013)
McDowell, Ashley. 2002. "Trust and information: The role of trust in the social epistemology of information science", Social Epistemology 16 (1): 51-63.
Marsh, Stephen, and Briggs, Pamela. 2009. "Examining Trust, Forgiveness and Regret as Computation Concepts", In Computing with Social Trust, Golbeck, Jennifer (ed.). Springer, pp. 9-43.
Pitt, Joseph C. 2010. "It's not about technology", Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23(3-4):445-454.
Baird, Davis. 2004. Thing Knowledge: A Philosophy of Scientific Instruments. University of California Press.
Chang, Hasok. 2004. Inventing Temperature. Measurement and Scientific Progress. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Humphreys, Paul. 2004. Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

E.g.
Humphreys, Paul. 2009. “Network Epistemology”, Episteme 6(2): 221-229.
Meijers, Anthonie W. M., and Marc J. De Vries. 2009. “Technological Knowledge”, in A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology, Olsen, J.K.B., Pedersen, S.A. & Hendricks, V.F. (eds). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 70-74.
Miller, Boaz, and Record, Isaac. 2013. “Justified Belief in a Digital Age: On the Epistemic Implications of Secret Internet Technologies”, Episteme 10(2): 117-134.

Miller & Record (2013) point out that “despite our vast and deep dependence on technology for acquiring knowledge and justified belief, epistemology has not, for the most part, given serious thought to the role technology plays in the fabric of knowledge and justification.” (p. 121).

Meijers & De Vries (2009, p. 70) note, “reflections on the nature of technological knowledge are fairly recent in the philosophy of technology. In more general epistemological debates, technological knowledge hardly ever features as an object of serious considerations”.
Laudan, Rachel. 1984. The Nature of Technological Knowledge. Are Models of Scientific Change Relevant? Boston: Reidel.
Jones (1996, p. 14) stated that “trusting is not an attitude that we can adopt toward machinery […] One can only trust things that have wills, since only things with wills can have goodwills”.

"Reliance is way of acting, whereas trust is an attitude" (Nickel 2013, p. 224 fn 3).

Trustworthiness, unlike reliability, is "the opportunity for the trustee to act against the wishes of the trustor and the trustee’s consideration of the value of the trust that has been placed in them by the trustor" (Wright 2010, abstract).
Jones, Karen. 1996. "Trust as an Affective Attitude",
Ethics
107(1):4-25
Wright, Stephen. 2010. "Trust and Trustworthiness",
Philosophia
38: 615–627.
Nickel, Philip J., Franssen, Maarten, and Kroes, Peter. 2010. “Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?”,
Knowledge, Technology & Policy
23(3-4): 429-444.

E.G.:
Johnson, Deborah G. 2006. "Computer systems: moral entities but not moral agents",
Ethics and Information Technology
8(4): 195-204.
Floridi, Luciano. 2011. "On the morality of artificial agents", In
Machine ethics
, M. Anderson & S. L. Anderson (Eds.),
Cambridge University Press, pp. 184–212.

Sosa, E. 2006. "Knowledge: Instrumental and Testimonial", In The Epistemology of Testimony, J. Lackey and E. Sosa (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 116-123.
Lehrer, K. 1995. “Knowledge and the Trustworthiness of Instruments”, The Monist 78(2): 156 170.
Kounelis, I., Baldini, G., Neisse, R., Steri, G., Tallacchini, M., and Guimaraes Pereira, A. 2014. "Building Trust in the Human? Internet of Things Relationship", Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE 33(4): 73-80.
Kiran, Asle H., & Verbeek, Peter-Paul. 2010. "Trusting Our Selves to Technology", Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23(3-4): 409-427.

"Unseen"
Libertarians
Techno-Progressive
Generation of knowledge
Distribution of knowledge
Testimony
Evidence
Justification of a belief
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