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Copy of The Renaissance
Transcript of Copy of The Renaissance
Origins of the Renaissance
Florence, Italy c. 1350 AD
Spread to the rest of Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Began at the time of the Bubonic Plague
Emerged from late middle ages.
Italians became interested in humanism, rather than religion which was the primary focus before the renaissance took shape.
They recognized these themes in Greek and Roman Cultures, from which they drew most of their influence.
Things to keep in mind
Renaissance is also about political, social, and economic changes.
Separation of church and state.
Wealthy families such as the Medici would fund the arts and arrange commissions.
Art was extremely valued and came to represent power and wealth in certain homes.
Saw human body as the work of art and came to depict a lot of nudes and half-nudes.
Church disapproved of the movement highly.
The 4 "Renaissance Men"
Or the TMNT?
Leonardo Da Vinci
Greatest sculptor the world has seen yet.
Carefully studied human anatomy from a scratch and was able to create highly realistic depictions of the human body.
His works explored Roman and biblical themes.
Founded the proportions of the body many artists use today.
His style overshadowed that of the classical period.
Was commissioned by Popes to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel.
The Renaissance (1400-1600)
David by Michelangelo
Modern view of Florence, Italy
Giotto's Altarpiece (1310) is one of the earliest works of the Renaissance
Cosimo I De Medici by Bronzino
The Last Supper
The true "Renaissance Man"
Joined the Painters' guild in Florence
Genius in both science and arts.
Sketched his studies of human anatomy and biology.
His works deal with biblical themes but also portraitures which the public finds controversial
The Vitruvian Man
Lady with an Ermine
Linear Perspective (making 2D look 3D since 1400s)
This technique was discovered by the architect Brunelleschi and has been used ever since.
Attention to detail and proportion.
Style was more involved in discovering how things work in real life.
(i.e shading, light, linear proportions, relative size), basically just detail, more detail, and even more detail.
Color was used with more playfulness.
DOMES were in frequent use
Renaissance influence outside Italy.
Centered in Flanders and England.
Slightly differs from Italian Renaissance, but shares essentials.
Less concerned with human anatomy/proportion and more with portraiture.
NO attention to linear perspective!!!
Notable artists: Jan Van Eyck and Robert Campin.
Exquisitely detailed portraiture.
by Jan Van Eyck
"A woman" By Robert Campin
Authors in The Renaissance
Why is Renaissance so Important?
It completely changed European way of thought.
Achievements and innovations in a way led to European "dominance of the world".
Paved a way for more cultural and artistic achievements.
Influenced cultures all over the world as techniques became more popular and widely used.
Many techniques artists still use today and have used throughout history post-Renaissance.
Authors of the time period created works that explored human nature in depth and philosophical manners.
Sonnets come around, popularized by Shakespeare.
Authors explored human emotions, meaning of life, and other such humanist idea which have been barely discussed before.
His famous dramas such as
Romeo and Juliet
directly dealt with the question of what it means to be human and discovery of human emotions.
Outlined individuality and character.
"Rebirth" in French.
The revival of classical culture abandoned in the middle ages .
Cultural development of Europe after the end of the "Dark Ages"
Flourishing of arts and sciences.
Political changes made life better than during the middle ages.
Art began to incorporate classical elements such as detail and proportion.
Great works of science and technologies began to emerge in Europe.
Created innovations in physics and planned out some technologies we use today.
Architecture- Santa Maria Del Fiore
Santa Maria Del Fiori- The Cathedral of Florence
1200's- built by Arnolfo di Cambrio
- Died before completion
- Sat incomplete for 100 years- no dome
by Filippo Brunelleschi
- Art of design = Architecture
- Studied Roman Architecture (Pantheon)
Art depicted how people really looked and lived
(not just ideal living)
Possible due to a better understanding of
math and anatomy
Perspective- Big improvement for both art and architecture
- Ability to make scenes appear in 3-D
- Possible with use of geometry, angles,
Leonardo da Vinci continued...
Often dissected cadavers which was illegal
Reflected in realism of work
The Last Supper
-exemplifies Humanism through showing personalities of characters
Read R to L with a mirror
- Used science to support art
Designed St. Peters Dome
The Sistine Chapel
Previously most art was religious
During the renaissance art began to be more worldly
- Luxury anyone could enjoy
People no longer allowed
religion to control them in
day to day life
Not atheism - STILL VERY RELIGIOUS
Expressed new ideas- Written in Vernacular
Vernacular- local languages
- All books previously were written in Latin
- Only Clergy could read
Knowledge was now available to the masses
blending of art & science
-show how Leonardo understood the proportions of the human body (i.e., the head measured from the forehead to the chin was exactly one tenth of the total height, and the outstretched arms were always as wide as the body was
- ideas were not Leonardo's, but were
taken from the writings of the Roman
architect Vitruvius. Both men believed
that the same principles should be
used when designing buildings.