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Chemistry Of Life

Unit 1

shyanne welch

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry Of Life

Cheyanne Ihrke and Shyanne Welch Living systems are made of complex molecules that consist mostly of a few elements, especially carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S). The significance of carbon is it can form up to 4 bonds. Explain the significance of carbon in organic molecules. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the most complex organisms that make up all living things. Identify the most common complex molecules that make up living organisms. If the essential elements were withheld from developing cells we would start dieing because we wouldn't be able to form new cells. Predict what would happen if essential elements were withheld from developing cells. Carbohydrates-
Organic compound that
consists of carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen Carbon-Chemical non-metal element on the periodic table of elements. Cellulose-Organic compound,
polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of up to ten thousand Condensation-The change of the physical state of matter from a gas to a liquid. Enzyme-Protein that creates a biological chemical reaction. Glucose-A simple monosaccharide. Hemoglobin-The iron containing substance in red blood cells that transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Oxygen-Chemical element. Phosphorus-Chemical element. Polymer-Macromolecule composed of repeating structural units. Proteins-Biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides. Starch-Carbohydrate consisting of a large amount of glucose units. Hormone- Substance produced in one part of an organism that affects another part of the same individual. Lipid- Macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes. Molecules- Smallest unit of most compounds. Monomer- Small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers. Monosaccharide- Single sugar molecules. RNA(Ribonucleic Acid)- single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose. Polysaccharide- Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides. Hydrogen-An element in organic compounds. Hydrolysis-A chemical reaction in which the interaction of a compound with water results it the decomposition of that compound. Macromolecule-A large complex molecule, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, with relatively large molecular weight. Nitrogen-An element that forms many important compounds. ATP(Adenosine Triosphate)-An organic compound composed of adenosine(an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups. DNA-a double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function. Phospholipid-A lipid with one or more phosphate groups attached to it. Inorganic molecule-A molecule not consisting of carbon atoms. Chemistry Of Life Carbohydrates-Compound made up of carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body. Carbon-One of the most important elements, because it is in all macromolecules. Cellulose-A polysaccharide. Condesation-The process or the state of changing a substance from gas to liquid or solid. Dehydration Synthesis-A chemical reaction that builds up molecules by losing water molecules. Elements-A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means, and is made up of atoms all with identical number of protons. Enzyme-Protein that acts as a biological catalyst. Glucose-A simple monosaccharide sugar that serves as the main source of energy and as an important metabolic substrate for most living things. Hemoglobin- Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body. Organic molecule-A molecule that is normally found in or produced by living systems. A molecule that typically consists of carbon atoms in rings or long chains. Oxygen-An element in every macromolecule. Phosphorous- This element is in Amino Acids. Polymer-Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers. Proteins- A marcomolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes. Starch-A polysaccharide carbohydrate.
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