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Technical and Vocational Education in Myanmar
Transcript of Technical and Vocational Education in Myanmar
Education system (including TVET) has not yet recovered
Brief of Country Profile
Until 1996, all vocational schools were under the administration of the MOE.
Separated and positioned under each of the relevant vocational organization.
Creating a big gap in education and training available for mid-level technicians.
Large number of unofficial private schools have been established to meet the demands of the labour market.
Brief of Country Profile &
Current Challenges (Cont.)
Political reform in 2010
Lifted economic sanctions of EU & Western Countries
WTO, GMS, ASEAN (AEC), ------
Natural endowment (petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, gold, marble, limestone,
precious stones, natural gas and hydro-power)
51. 4 million Population
(economically productive age (15-64 years) 65.6%)
Unemployent rate 4.0 %
No consultation with entrepreneurs, business associations, and chambers
No evidence of private enterprise involvement in the development of skills standards and curricula
Consequence ..... much supply-driven TVET system (both in public & private)
TVET stakeholders – supply & demand – are aware on obstacles and problems in the system
Even though the government is supported by DPs, the work on capacity building across all states have been a slow and challenging process
Processes are directly reflected the productivity of the country
Breakdown of Exports Share in 2013
Skills standards for 175 occupations by NSSA
55 occupations approved by the government
Little or no involvement of industry partners
Fit into the world of training and work?
The trainers have little industrial experience and characterized as:
a) theory-oriented rather than practice-
b) classroom-based rather than industry- or
Development of new technologies;
Changing patterns of work;
Mismatch between training and skills;
Mismatch between demand and supply;
Lack of adequate industry participation;
Insufficient number of trainers;
Inadequate vocational training infrastructure;
Low employment outcome of graduates;
Poor relationship with industry/employers and institutions; and
Lack of a tripartite (government, employer and worker) approach.
The interviewees were asked:
Are you involved in TVET in any way?
Are you investing in TVET?
If yes, in what form? How much is your organization investing?
Nothing concrete effort has been undertaken.
"No, we cannot have that kind of collaboration."
They have no information on demand-driven TVET models in Myanmar
Responses did not reveal a good understanding of the relationship between supply and demand
Impossible to talk about demand driven TVET initiatives
Desirability (interests, wishes) &
Readiness of Businesses to be Involved
Workers need to be trained (or) Want to hire skilled workers
Interest in having qualified workers that need less instruction
Hire foreign workers who are more expensive
Contribute with ideas in policy-making
Involve in every level of TVET planning and implementation
Depend on the business and job opportunities
There is willingness, but they feel they are not ready
It is the role, responsibility, and main job of the government
Need an organized business groups without political affiliation to take a leading role
Many businesses would like to contribute, but not all of them have the capacity because TVET is very expensive
Only if the TVET providers can demonstrate in producing qualified and skilled professionals, then businesses will invest
Not familiar with what the TVET system
Not well aware of the advantages for their business
There is total lack of accountability & no interest
Do not trust the government because government policy can change overnight
Want to invest only in their own training centres rather than in cooperation with the government.
Radiness of Business to Involve in TVET
Proposals on Where Businesses can Collaborate or Contribute
Decision-making (offering TVET courses)
TVET curricula design
TVET students’ apprenticeship and practice places (via contract or agreement)
TVET teacher training and qualifications, and exchange of technical expertise (vocational institutions and businesses or industry)
Investment in equipment for TVET
Reasons for No Readiness
Skepticism about TVET systems
Lack of awareness among employers for qualified workers
Lack of information for formal TVET system
Small and weak local businesses
Lack of involvement in the government initiatives to improve the TVET system
Lack of a sustainable relationship with the government
Private providers’ quality is also not up to the standards
Shortage of qualified workers prevents the continuous qualification of the staff
The segmentation of responsibilities over various ministries creates confusion
Lack of TVET offers in some crucial economic sectors
Lack of a quality assurance system in the TVET system
Lack of a quality assurance system in all economic sectors
There are ways to change the policy from supply-driven to demand-driven:
a) to understand the private sector’s (businesses & entrepreneurs) needs;
b) to involve the private sector in designing the curricula
(more balance between theory and practice & closer the curricula content and the learning outcomes to the needs of the labour market)
Economic Sector in Myanmar
Developing 242 Toolboxes for the 6 Labour Divisions:
Food & Beverage Service
Developed Occupations &
Hospitality Related Occupations
(175) occupations for skills standards have been developed.
(55) occupations have been approved by the Government,
Hotel Housekeeping Operator (Laundry Attendant)
Publish Area Cleaner / Attendant
Hotel Housekeeping Operator (Room Attendant)
Where can I find the 242 toolboxes?
You can find soft copies of the toolboxes at www.waseantourism.com
User Name: guest
Password : guest1
Each toolbox will consists of:
Trainer Guide, comprising of:
Training PowerPoint slides
Recommended training equipment.
Assessment package, comprising:
Written Questions with Model Answers
Third Party Statement
Competency Recording Sheet.
Myanmar & ASEAN Common Competency Standarts for Tourism Professionals
MRA and SEAN Tourism Professionals
ILO Recommendation for TVET Development
Law and policy development
Training Management and Organization
Promoting access to TVET
Planning and information
Industry collaboration in TVET
Considerable portion of the total population is at working age
Classroom-based rather than industry- or business-based.
Semi-skilled and skilled migrants abroad
Current target groups for TVET are:
middle-school drop-outs; and
unemployed job-seekers aged 18–30;
employed workers who want to become supervisors
Lack of Cooperation between public and private sectors
Population by Level of Education Completed
in Urban and Rural (Census, 2015)