Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
Music in the Middle Ages
Transcript of Music in the Middle Ages
• Developed from Greek accents as a guide for remembering learned melodies.
• The Catholic church was the center of writing, learning, and art for many centuries.
Music in the Middle Ages
• Many different chant dialects
existed, but 8th and 9th century
church leaders made this one a
most permanent fixture.
• Also called "liturgical chant" or "plainsong"
• Initially monophonic, later polyphonic
• Antiphonal (two choirs)
• Or responsorial (soloist and choir)
• Named for Pope Gregory I.
• Legend goes that the holy
spirit appeared to Gregory as
a dove and dictated the chant.
• Though he may have had an influence
on the development of this dialect,
modern scholars dismiss the idea of him
as a composer.
• Became Neumes
• Added staves and clefs
• And a fifth line
• Sacred music was monophonic for a very long time.
• Melodies were modal.
• Isorhythmic technique considered
rhythm (talea) and melody (color)
Guillame de Machaut
• Initially a "vox organalis" improvised a 4th or 5th below the "vox principalis"
• Later, parts were added above the "cantus firmus," which became the "tenor" once parts were moved below it.
• Organum used "isorhythm."
• Religous ideology extended deeply into musical composition
• The tri-tone (4+ or 5˚) was considered "the devil's interval" and avoided
• The three-part trinity led the church to define triple meter as perfect and duple as imperfect
• Rhythm = talea
• Melody = color
• This "measured rhythm" enabled sequences of durations and pitches to be repeated, even when they don't line up.
• Later: troubadors and
• Later: minnesingers
• Credited with beginning the Notre Dame School of composition.
• One of, if not the, first composers whose name is preserved with his/her works.
• Used six rhythmic patterns, which he would indicate at the beginning of a piece.
• Leonin's student
• First known composer of four-part polyphony
Four-part organum is called "quadruplum," and three-part is called "triplum."
• Songs of [unrequited] love, morals, mockery, drinking, gaming
• Structural forms of motet, estampie, ballata, rondeau
• With the original chant material as the bottom, tenor voice, other sacred text could be applied to the parts above.
• The church accepted this as long as the original chant melody remained unchanged.
• Secular text began to replace sacred text.
• Counterpoint truly began to develop within this form.
• The most celebrated of Ars Nova composers
• Composed much more secular than sacred music
• Including over 100 "formes fixes" works
• Contributed to proliferation of more precise rhythmic notation
• Notable "Messe de Notre Dame"
Early Middle Ages
• Motets began as sacred but quickly became a secular feature
• Led by the Notre Dame School
• Polyphony expanded to enable four parts
• Composers of secular work increased in notability
• Rhythmic complexity increased
• Vertical, harmonic integration considered more
• Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)
• French, significant Ars Nova leader
• Francesco Landini (1324-1397)
• Italian, one of the first in the region to explore polyphony in the late 14th
• John Dunstable (1390-1453)
• English, used the mediant (3rd) more than others
Hildegard von Bingen
• Composed longer and more ethereal melismatic melodies than contemporaries
• Known as a religious visionary
• Great Schism of 1054
• Eastern (Constantinople) and Western (Rome) church leaders excommunicated each other
• The Crusades (1095-1291)
• Western conquering of the Holy Land, which were then recaptured by Muslim forces
• The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
• Between England and France
• Almost ended with 1360 Treaty of Calais