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WEstern Civ

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nic smith

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of WEstern Civ

The First Humans WESTERN CIVILIZATION
Summative Project
•Hominids (Earliest human creatures)
oAustralopithecines
Africa= point of origin for mankind
Used stone tools

oHomo Erectus (upright)
1st to leave Africa; moves to Europe and Asia

oHomo Sapiens (“wise human being”)
Neanderthals-1st to bury dead
Homo Sapiens Sapiens- all humans today are ancestors First Humans Hunter Gatherers of Old Stone Age
•Paleolithic Age- nomadic bands; first known to use painting to explain life Neolithic Revolution (10,000-4000 BC)
•Agricultural Revolution- move from hunting-gathering toward systematic growing
Leads to permanent settlements Bronze Age (3000-1200 BC)
•Copper and bronze used to make, tools, weapons, for trade Characteristics of a Civilization
•Urban focus-cities
•Religious structure
•Political and Military Structures
•Social structure
•Writing- record keeping
•Artistic and Intellectual Activity-building structures with meaning
•Communication, roads, etc. Mesopotamia "Land Between the Rivers" Mesopotamia (“Land Between the Rivers”)
• Begins at Sumer (3000BC) between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
o Fertile crescent- little rain but flooding from Caucus Mtns brought rich soil.
• Sumerians
o Independent city-states with walled cities, defense towers, arches all built with mud bricks
• Agricultural Economy, but traded textiles, pottery, & metal work
• Social Structure
o Elites-royals and priests
o Dependent commoners-elites’ clients-work on estates or palaces
o Free commoners-farmers (90%), merchants, fishers, scribes, craftspeople
o Slaves-builders, laborers, females- grind grain
• Polytheistic (100s of gods)
o Ziggurats: built by kings to chief god who “owned” city
• Government: Theocracy-god is state’s supreme civil ruler through a divine king
• Cuneiform: earliest known form of writing (pictographic not alphabetic)
• Mathematics: number system, geometry, astronomy
• Hammurabi: leader of Amorites
o Man of War & Man of Peace EGYPT Egypt
•Nile River
oImportance: annual flooding (gradual and predictable)
Life-enhancing not life-threatening
oNatural barrier along with deserts to the East and West The Ancient Near East:
Peoples and Empires Hebrews (“Children of Israel”)
•Descendants of Abraham: moved from Mesopotamia to Canaan•Migrate to Egypt- enslaved by pharaohs
oMoses leads out of Egypt (Exodus)- end in Canaan
Organized into 12 tribes; have problems with Philistines
•United Kingdom
oDavid reunites Israelites, defeats Philistines, controls Canaan
Capital at Jerusalem
oSolomen-height of Israel’s power
•Divided Kingdomom Solomen’s death= 2 separate kingdoms
Kingdom of Israel (10 tribes) & Kingdom of Judah (2 tribes)
oIsrael destroyed & Assyrian’s took over
oChaldeans demolish Assyria, Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem
oPersians defeat Chaldeans, Judah people return, become Jews The Assyrian Empire The Assyrian Empire
•Empire created under Tigalth-Pileser I- empire expanded with military campaigns
•Governing Empire
oAbsolute kings, eliminated nobles and replaced with loyal people
oExcellent system communication-network of horses to transport messages
•Military
o1st to use iron weapons
oMultiple tactics (very brutal)- hand to hand, siege, guerilla warwafe
•Society & Culture
oAgriculture (primary), trade (secondary)
oHybrid culture
Took much from Sumerians &Babylon
Artists Neobabylonian Empire Neobabylonian Empire
•Chaldeans & Medes join and topple Assyrians
•Nebuchadnezzar=most important king
•Hanging Gardens- one of the 7 wonders of ancient world
•8 miles of walls & moat to defend cities
•Agriculture, metalwork, textiles
•Cyrus of Persians= liberator (not conqueror)
oAllowed them to keep their culture (prevented rebellion) Persian Empire •Expanding Empire
oCyrus the Great- gains control of Babylon, makes Media a satrapy
oDarius
Builds canal to link Red & Mediterranean Seas
499BC Ionians revolt
•Battle of Marathon-Athenian victory
•Reestablishes control of Greek cities, invades mainland
Largest empire
Excellent system communication- road system
•The Great Kings
oNot seen as gods, but divine rulers- built elaborate palaces
oGreedy- overtaxed people, led to revolts
•Religion
oZoroastrianism
oPolytheistic but Ahuramazda= main God
oBased on good/evil with afterlife
Impacted Christianity (ideas of afterlife, final judgement, monotheism) Greek Civilization •Early Greece
oGeography-mountainous peninsula- Greeks isolated from one another (independence)
Sea- influenced spread of Greek society-set up colonies
•Minoan Crete (2000-1450BC)
oEarliest Aegean civilization- Knossus=capital
oCatastrophic collapse
Tsunami triggered by volcanic eruption
Invasion by Mycenaeans The Roman Republic Early Dynastic Period (3100-2686 BC)
•1st Civilization of Egypt- very rural; capital moved to Memphis
•Government: pharaoh ruled; governors control city-states
oKing Menes-founder; united Upper and Lower Egypt Old KingdomFirst Intermediate Period (2180-2055 BC)
•“Dark Period”: Upper and Lower Egypt are divided
oWeak government- very disorganized
oFailure of annual Nile flooding-collapse of monarchy Middle Kingdom (2055-1615 BC)
•Rival dynasties established between Upper and Lower Egypt
•Nome structure reorganized; Nomarchs- collect taxes, supply labor force
•Agricultural production on rise: high water levels- prosperity
•Pharaohs no longer godlike, shepherd of people instead Second Intermediate Period (1783-1540 BC)
•Decentralization: population & industry move from urban centers to outlying districts
•All Egypt united New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC)
•Ramses III- last great pharaoh; will defeat Sea people & Libians- drain treasury
•Nile doesn’t flood- famine and civil unrest/corruption= end of kingdom Third Intermediate Period (1070-30 BC)
•Assyrians conquer all Egypt. Egyptians resettle in Assyria & influence life and culture Phlilistines
•Sea people- cities on coasts, farmers who had conflicts with Israelites

Phoenicians
•Traders by land and sea, colonies throughout Mediterranean
•Writing
o22 signs to represent sounds of their speech •Religion
oEarly worshipped many gods
oChief god = Yahweh (monotheism)- basis Judaism
oGod= creator of the world & people are his servants (merciful & loving)
oDuring Exodus, God entered covenant with Israelites- monotheism
oProphets- voice to people, told of notion of universalism & social justice •Social Patterns
oMen of rank/influence-officials to king, military officers, civil officials, governors
oLivelihood- agriculture & crafts, traded with Phoenicians
oNo merchant class until Jew Diaspora
oFamily= central social institutions, father= master with absolute authority
oMarriage Polygamy (to have more children)Monogamy (preferred) http://www.history.com/videos/last-stand-of-the300-the-kill-zone#last-stand-of-the300-the-kill-zone http://www.history.com/shows/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us/videos/mankind-in-2-minutes#mankind-in-2-minutes •Hellenistic Age established –“to imitate Greeks”
•Greek language, art, culture spread
oHellenistic Kingdoms
Macedonia-Antigonids
Syria Seleucids
Pergamene-Attalid Dynasty
Egypt- Ptolemies
Political system
•Monarchy & democracy (govt controlled mainly by kings)
Economy
•Agricultural – Grain
•Trade- up Tigris River and up Red Sea
Religion
•Kings mostly tolerant
•Mystery religions spread- pave the way for Christianity oAlexander the Great
Battle of Granicus River
•Gained control of West Asia Minor & liberated people from Persia
Battle of Issus
•Fought on narrow field, Alexander wins
Battle of Tyre
•Alexander builds causeway-creates path to Egypt
Battle of Gaugamela
•Fought on an open field
•Alexander uses cavalry to attack center of Persian lines, wins
Legacy
•One of greatest military leaders of all time oDecline of City-States
70 years of constant warfare-Democracies replaced by oligarchies
oReligion
Polytheistic with many religious festivals
•Olympic Festivals
Mystery Religions
oSexual Relationships
Prostitution flourished
Male Homosexuality- “ideal” relationship (mature man & young man oGreece v. Persia
Persians take control, people revolt w/ Athenian assistance but Persians regain control
Persians invade & attack North of Athens, but at the Battle of Marathon, Persians are crushed
oConflicts With Persians
Xerxes (Persia) seeks revenge on Greeks, invades
Leonidas (Sparta)- hold them for two days
Battle of Salamis (480BC)-naval battle, Greeks win
Battle of Plataea (479BC)-Spartans & Athenians completely defeat Persians
oDelian League
Alliance system
Worked to liberate all Aegean states from Persia
oPericles
Height of Athenian power
Cut ties with Sparta, expanded democracy
oPeloponnesian War (431-404BC)
Spartans feared Athens power over Aegean States
Phase 1-Athenians held behind city walls, plague kills, Peace treaty signed
Phase 2-Athenians sack Sicily, led to weakened democracy & temporary aristocratic oligarchy
Destruction-Athenian fleet defeated at Hellespont, surrender
) •The Greek City-States
oPolis (city state)
oAcropolis- high point where citizens met
oCitizenship
Adult males- with political rights
Women & children- no political rights
Slaves & aliens- non citizens
oNew Military System
Hoplites
Phalanx (formation)-limited soldiers from being outflanked
Strategy-engage enemy quickly and head on •Dark Ages of Greece (1100-750BC)
oChaotic stage following Mycenae fall
Population decline: food shortages & invasions
oEffects:
Many migrated to Asia
Adopted Phoenician alphabet •First Greek States: Mycenaeans
oGroup of loose, independent city states (Mycenae=center)
oPowerful monarchies
oSocial Structure
King (wanax)
Commanders of army, priests bureaucrats
Peasants, soldiers, artisans
Slaves
oWarrior society-citizens prided themselves on being heroes
oDestroyed 1100BC • Geography
o Peninsula with mountains and fertile plains
o Built on 7 well-defended hills
o Mediterranean- increased trade & wealth; control •Government
oMonarchy (First 250 years)
oAristocratic Republic
Imperium= right to command
2 executive offices (consuls & praetors)
Senate
•Served for life & could only advise
Centuriate Assembly (lawmakers)
oTribunes of Plebs (494 BC) & Council of Plebs (471 BC)
Gave plebians security & equal rights
oRoman law = Twelve Tables •Roads
oExcellent communication
oTransport military quickly
•Army
omen 18-46
o4 legions of about 5,000 men; arranged by class/wealth • Society/Culture
o Religion
 Gods-State religion focused on worshipping gods
 Pontiffs= priest; Pontifex maximus= chief pontiff (controlled state’s religion)
 Festivals- athletic competitions and games
o Education
 No formal system, left up to families • Conquest
o Mediterranean
 Punic Wars- won with Battle of Zama; Carthage destroyed & renamed Africa
 Macedonia made Roman province (148 BC)
 Pergamum given to Rome (133 BC) • Decline/Collapse of Republic
o Political chaos, economic issues, civil war
o Land problem-landowners put farmers out of business following return from war
o Political Issues-Senate gained too much power, leaders divided
o Civil War-Struggle for equality between classes & power of Senate o First Triumvirate
 alliance system btw. Crassus, Pompey, Caesar
 Caesar defeats Pompey after Crassus’ death
o Caesar
 Dictator (44BC)
 Increased size of Senate, “Romanization”
 Assassinated
o Octavian
 Battles Mark Antony at Battle of Actium
 Octavian wins, rules over all of Rome Alexander the Great- (3:35-5:00) Ancient Rome- (0:46-2:00) Alexander The Great Phalanx formation Romulus and Remus Patricians and Plebians Roman Dress Lascaux Cave Paintings Catal Hayuk Godess: represents fertility of the land & women Torah Ten Commandments Sphinx Pyramids at Giza Cleopatra Hammurabi's Code Ziggurat Hanging Gardens
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