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BTEC L3 Sport - Neural and Chemical control of Breathing

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Antony Veevers

on 22 September 2015

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Transcript of BTEC L3 Sport - Neural and Chemical control of Breathing

BTEC L3 Sport - Neural and Chemical control of Breathing
Neural and chemical control of breathing
Breathing rate
Exercise = increase in rate and depth of breathing.
Because - muscles demand more oxygen.
Which creates more carbon dioxide.
Capillary network around the alveoli expands, increasing blood flow to lungs and diffusion.
Anticipatory rise
Start of exercise = big increase in breathing rate because of receptors in muscles and joints.
After several minutes of exercise = slower rate of breathing rate increase before levelling off if intensity stays the same.
Or rate will continue to rise until exhaustion.
Post exercise = breathing rate drop fast to begin with before slowing down until back to normal.
Tidal Volume
Is the amount of air breathed in and out with each breath.
Only 2/3 of this reaches the alveoli for gaseous exchange.
During exercise = tidal volume increases to allow more air into lungs.
Volume of air passing through lungs = minute volume and is the product of breathing rate and amount of air taken in with each breath.
Tidal volume is elevated by both aerobic and anaerobic work.
During exercise, oxygen is depleted from body causing a deeper tidal volume to compensate.
Neural and chemical control of breathing
Key Points

Breathing is a complex process under involuntary control by the respiratory centres of the brain.
Involves 2 actions - 1). inspiration (an active process). 2). expiration (a passive process.
Breathing controlled by neural and chemical factors.
i.e. Increases in rate and depth of breathing are detected by stretch receptors in the lungs.
Respiratory centres of the brain (medulla oblongata and pons) send nerve impulses to the respiratory muscles to control breathing frequency (how often) and tidal volume of each breath.
When altering depth and rate of breathing, these centres are responding to central and peripheral information.
Other information comes from chemoreceptors - e.g. aortic arch/carotid - these respond to changes in partial pressure
Mechanoreceptors in joints, tendons and active muscles assess movement and metabolic status also feed information.
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