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IGCSE Chemistry - Acids, Bases and Salts

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Simon Harvey

on 3 September 2014

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Transcript of IGCSE Chemistry - Acids, Bases and Salts

Salt Making - the basics Don't forget the following equations:
acid + base --> salt + water
acid + carbonate --> salt + water + carbon dioxide
acid + metal* --> salt + hydrogen

sulfuric acid --> sulfate
hydrochloric acid --> chloride
nitric acid --> nitrate

* = metal must be above hydrogen in the reactivity series, but K, Na etc too dangerous! Acids and Alkalis Acid = substance which dissolves in water to form hydrogen ions, H+(aq).
Bases are substances that neutralise acids and include metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia.
An alkali is a soluble base. Alkalis dissolves in water to form hydroxide ions, OH-(aq).
pH scale is used to show how acidic or alkaline a solution is.
Universal indicator can be used to find the pH of a substance.
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) --> H O(l) Making Soluble Salts 1 Used for sodium, potassium and ammonium salts.
Use an acid and an alkali, e.g. for sodium chloride use hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
Slowly add acid from a burette to alkali in a conical flask.
Check pH and add more acid until a neutral solution is obtained.
Evaporate off about half the water.
Leave to cool and crystallise. Making Soluble Salts 2 Used for all other soluble salts.
Acid reacted with an excess of insoluble base or metal, e.g. for copper sulfate react sulfuric acid with copper oxide or copper carbonate. Cannot use copper metal as it does not react with acid.
Warm sulfuric acid in a beaker.
Add copper oxide until it is in excess (black powder floating in a blue solution).
Filter off excess and collect filtrate in an evaporating dish.
Evaporate off about half the water.
Leave to cool and crystallise. Making Insoluble Salts Made by precipitation.
Need to mix solutions, one containing the positive ion and the other containing the negative ion, e.g for barium sulphate react barium nitrate with sodium sulphate.
The insoluble salt forms as a precipitate and is collected by filtration. The residue in the filter paper is then washed with distilled water and dried. Acids, Alkalis and Salts 2 A = lead(II) iodide
B = barium sulphate
C = copper(II) carbonate
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