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Nick Chamberlain

on 30 July 2012

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Transcript of Photography

History, Camera Parts &Techniques
Everything you ever wanted to know
PHOTOGRAPHY: Background and History
1.Black and White Photography
2.Colour Photograpy
3.Digital Photography
All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. In modern times, black-and-white has mostly become a minority art form, and most photography has become color photography.
In the mid 1800’s one of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color filter (Red, Blue, Green) in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a darkroom or processing plant.
In 1935, American Kodak introduced the first modern color film, Kodachrome, based on three colored emulsions.
Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data on to disk (memory card) rather than as chemical changes on film.
In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.
Digital imaging is rapidly replacing film photography in consumer and professional markets. Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording.
On January 2004 Kodak announced that they were going to stop producing film cameras. Nikon followed Kodak’s lead on January 2006 and finally Cannon on May 2006. Although they would stop production of SLR (Film) cameras, they still produce 35 mm film.
CAMERA: Parts and Functions
2. Focus
3. Diaphragm
4. Aperture/Iris
1. Lens
A photographic lens (also known as objective lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
Due to the optical properties of photographic lenses, only objects within a certain range of distances from the camera will be reproduced clearly. The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the camera's focus. There are various ways of focusing a camera accurately. The simplest cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens, usually around 3 metres (10 ft) to infinity, is in reasonable focus.
A diaphragm is a thin opaque structure with an opening (aperture/iris) at its centre. The role of the diaphragm is to stop the passage of light, except for the light passing through the aperture. Thus it is also called a stop
An aperture, is a hole or an opening within the lens, through which light is admitted
CAMERA: Techniques/Composition
1. Depth of Field
2. Dutch/Tilt
3. Rule of Thirds
4. Framing
5.The S-Curve/Lead-In Lines
Depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus.
The rule of thirds is a compositional rule of thumb in photography and other visual arts such as painting. The rule states that an image can be divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines. The four points formed by the intersections of these lines can be used to align features in the photograph. Proponents of this technique claim that aligning a photography with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the photo than simply centering the feature would.
Framing is another technique photographers use to direct the viewer's attention to the primary subject of a picture. Positioned around the subject, a tree, an archway, or even people, for example, can create a frame within the picture area. Subjects enclosed by a frame become separated from the rest of the picture and are emphasized. Looking across a broad expanse of land or water at some object can make a rather dull uninteresting view. Moving back a few feet and framing the object between trees improves the composition.
• This technique uses a gentle curve - a path, or a river, perhaps - to 'lead the eye into the picture', though it is not necessarily particularly S-shaped. Positioning lines or objects diagonally towards the main point of interest in the scene will draw your viewer into the picture.

• Lead-in lines don't have to be straight. All they need to do is lead the eye into the picture. Don't have lead-in lines going out of your picture. The viewer's eye will just follow the line and will tend not to see any other major feature in your photo.
A Dutch tilt, Dutch angle, oblique angle, German angle, canted angle or Batman Angle is a cinematic tactic often used to portray the psychological uneasiness or tension in the subject being filmed. A Dutch angle is achieved by tilting the camera off to the side so that the shot is composed with the horizon at an angle to the bottom of the frame. Many Dutch angles are static shots at an obscure angle, but in a moving Dutch angle shot the camera can pivot, pan or track along the director/cinematographer's established diagonal axis for the shot.
CAMERA: Angles and Shots
1. High-Angle Shot
2. Low-Angle Shot
3. Bird’s-Eye Shot
4. Distance
A high angle shot is usually when the camera is located high (often above head height) and the shot is angled downwards (in contrast to a bird's eye shot or a low-angle shot). This shot is used sometimes in scenes of confrontation and fights to show which person has the higher power. The subject of a high angle shot looks vulnerable or insignificant.
A Bird's eye shot refers to a shot looking directly down on the subject. The perspective is very foreshortened, making the subject appear short and squat. This shot can be used to give an overall establishing shot of a scene, or to emphasise the smallness or insignificance of the subjects.
• Extreme Long Shot
• Long Shot
• Medium Shot
• Medium Close-Up
• Close-Up
• Extreme Close-Up
A low-angle shot, is a shot from a camera positioned low on the vertical axis, often at knee height, looking up. This technique is sometimes used in scenes of confrontation to illustrate which character holds the higher position of power.
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