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Unification of Germany Timeline
Transcript of Unification of Germany Timeline
Unification of Germany
Otto Von Bismarck
1862, William I turned for help from Otto Von Bismarck, a Prussian representative and then later a Prussian ambassador to Russia.
Bismarck quickly moved against liberal parliament after becoming Prime Minister and supported German nationalism as a strategy to set up Prussian conservatives to outflank Prussian liberals.
The Danish War (1864)
Danish Parliament wanted both Germans and Danes to integrate with Denmark.
This started an all-German war because they wanted to stop this move.
The Danish defeat strengthened Bismarck's political power.
The Austro-Prissan War (1866)
War was provoked by Bismarck.
Conflict arose over the administration of Schleswig and Holstein and the war was to push away from Austria and towards Prussia.
The Treaty of Pargue ended the conflict on August 23.
The war lasted 7 weeks.
The North German Confederation
The North German Confederation formed after the Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussain War) in 1867.
The German Confederation formed north of the Main River.
All Military force was under federal control.
Berlin was it's capital.
This new North German Confederation's constitution served as a guide for the German Empire that emerged in 1871.
The Franco-Prussian War (1870)
A War between France and Prussia that showed the strength of the new German Military and its upcoming empire.
Provoked by Bismarck as a part of his plan to create a unified German Empire.
German Empire (1871)
Treaty of Frankfurt Between France & The German Empire
Ended the Franco-Prussian War.
This Treaty established the frontier between the French and German Empire.
The Treaty also gave the German Empire a spot on the big European political powers.
William I Succeeding Fredrick William IV
In the 1850's German Unification seemed unlikely to happen. The German Confederation, which was the political structure for 39 states. The Confederation was established at the Congress of Vienna.
Railways made it easy for these states to trade with each other.
In 1858, Fredrick William IV was announced insane so his brother, William I became the new King of Prussia.
Williams first idea was to strengthen the Prussian Army. Thus, Increasing the number of officers, and extending the time of conscription to two days instead of three.
William needed to increase taxes so he could reach his goal of strengthening the Prussian Army, increase of taxes did not sit well with the Liberals which made up the majority of the people in the political body.
Refusing to pay extra taxes set Monarch and Parliament into deadlock.
The End of German Unification
The end of The German Empire in 1918, after WWI, due to their defeat turned into a federal republic and is now known as the country we all know today, Germany.
The German Empire consisted of 27 states and most of them were ruled by Royal authorities.
The Kingdom of Prussia made up of 60% of the German Empire.
The German Empires official name was the Deutsches Reich which means, German Realm.
The German Empire flag went from black, red, white, to black, red, gold in 1919. because of the Weimar Republic, which was the establishment of Germany's representative democracy.
During the Austro-Prussian War, Prussia was dominating the North Confederation and adopted the black, white, and red to their flag and it later became the flag of the German Empire.
The south States joined the North Confederation to form the German Empire, after the Franco-Prussian War.
Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke: 1866
The war of 1866 [between Prussia and Austria] was entered on not because the existence of Prussia was threatened, nor was it caused by public opinion and the voice of the people; it was a struggle, long foreseen and calmly prepared for, recognized as a necessity by the Cabinet, not for territorial aggrandizement, for an extension of our domain, or for material advantage, but for an ideal end--the establishment of power. Not a foot of land was exacted from Austria, but she had to renounce all part in the hegemony of Germany. . . Austria had exhausted her strength in conquests south of the Alps, and left the western German provinces unprotected, instead of following the road pointed out by the Danube. Its center of gravity lay out of Germany; Prussia's lay within it. Prussia felt itself called upon and strong enough to assume the leadership of the German races.
Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856
Because of the policy of Vienna [the Congress of Vienna, 1815], Germany is clearly too small for us both [Prussia and Austria]; as long as an honorable arrangement concerning the influence of each in Germany cannot be concluded and carried out, we will both plough the same disputed acre, and Austria will remain the only state to whom we can permanently lose or from whom we can permanently gain. . . .I wish only to express my conviction that, in the not too distant future, we shall have to fight for our existence against Austria and that it is not within our power to avoid that, since the course of events in Germany has no other solution.
Otto von Bismarck: 1866
We had to avoid wounding Austria too severely; we had to avoid leaving behind in her any unnecessary bitterness of feeling or desire for revenge; we ought rather to reserve the possibility of becoming friends again with our adversary of the moment, and in any case to regard the Austrian state as a piece on the European chessboard. If Austria were severely injured, she would become the ally of France and of every other opponent of ours; she would even sacrifice her anti-Russian interests for the sake of revenge on Prussia. . . .The acquisition of provinces like Austria Silesia and portions of Bohemia could not strengthen the Prussian state; it would not lead to an amalgamation of German Austria with Prussia, and Vienna could not be governed from Berlin as a mere dependency. . . .Austria's conflict and rivalry with us was no more culpable than ours with her; our task was the establishment or foundation of German national unity under the leadership of the King of Prussia.