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Organic Chemistry Mind Map

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Vikrant Mainali

on 10 December 2015

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Transcript of Organic Chemistry Mind Map

Organic Chemistry Mind Map
Alkanes
Alkanes are carbons with single bonds
Functional group of C-C
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons (only containing hydrogen and carbon atoms and joined by single bonds)
They share the general formula of C(n)H(2n+2)
Hydrocarbons with less than 5 carbon atoms have low boiling points and are gases
Hydrocarbons with more than 5 carbon atoms are liquids
Names of alkanes ends with -ane
Undergoes substitution as halogenation (replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with a halogen) reaction to form Halogenoalkane
Alkenes
Functional group of C=C
More reactive than Alkanes due to the double bond
They are unsaturated compounds meaning that they can undergo addition reactions which means that it can combine with other molecules to form larger ones
General formula of C(n)H(2n)
Addition reaction forms alkanes since it breaks the double bonds
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes:
Ends with -anal
There is an oxygen double bonded to the last carbon and a hydrogen as well
Can go under reduction reaction to form Primary alcohols and oxidated to carboxylic acids

Alcohols
Functional group of -OH
End with -ol
Primary alcohols can be oxidised twice, first to an aldehyde, and then to a carboxylic acid
Secondary alcohols can only be oxidised once, to a ketone
Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidised due to no hydrogens being attached to the carbon for oxygen to remove
Can undergo combustion reaction to form CO2 and H20
Can undergo condensation reaction to form an ether
Ethers and Esters
Ether: an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl groups
Ester: Condensation of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid
Ether can undergo Nucleophilic Substitution ( an electron nucleophile selectively bonds with the positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace the electron that is leaving)
Ester can undergo hydrolysis to form carboxylic acid

Basics of Organic Chemistry
It is a study of carbon based compounds
Carbon always makes 4 bonds with other atoms because they have 4 valence electrons
Carbon undergoes catenation which is a process where atoms are joined together by covalent bonds
A homoglogous series is a series of compounds that are grouped together since they have similar structures and reactions (but they have different physical properties). Thus having the same general formula only varying from one member to the other by CH2.
As chains get longer in homoglogous series, boiling points also increases
Isomers have same formula but different structure in terms of bonding
Naming:
Meth- 1 carbon, Eth- 2, Prop- 3, But- 4, Pent- 5, Hex- 6
Count the longest chain of carbons that you can find
What kind of branches does it include
How many branches
Where the branches are located
Alkynes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
It contains at least 2 carbons bonded together by a triple bond
General formula of C(n)H(2n-2)
While naming alkynes, you have to state where the bond starts
Ketone:
Three carbons in a row
Oxygen double bonded to the central
Ends with -one
Can go under reduction to form secondary alcohols
Carboxylic Acids:
Functional group - Carbon, double bonded oxygen and a hydrogen
Ends with -oic
Can be reduced to form aldehydes
Amine and Amide
Amines are derivitives of Ammonia
Functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Aromatic amines are ones consisting of aromatic rings
Amines can undergo substitution reaction to form primary alcohols or secondary amines.
The nitrogen is joined to at least one alkyl group
Amides are compounds which include a carbonyl group (C=O)
Primary amides can undergo reduction to form primary amines, secondary amides can undergo hydrolysis to form primary amines or carboxylic acid.

The objective of
this mind-map is to link
concepts and terms in organic
chemistry together.
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