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Transcript of Paper Info-graphic
Mikhaela Ong How's it Made? Effects Social Environment Economy The three main
materials for paper
making are To become paper,
trees goes through a long process that includes: Paper is mainly
made out of cellulose Some papers
also have a little lignin, which binds fibers Molecular
Structure Most papers are somewhat strong due to the cellulose fibers.
The longer the cellulose fibers are, the stronger a paper is. Logging Some paper making processes need around Without paper there would be no: Despite recycling and reusing, paper production is still a resource-intensive and polluting manufacturing industry that affects the environment. However, 145 jobs in total are created for every 15,000 tons of old newspaper that are recycled each year:
30 jobs to collect the paper
40 jobs to process the paper
75 jobs to manufacture the newsprint - The pulp and paper industry releases toxic chemicals into the water and emits green house gases, sulfur dioxide and other
dangerous air pollutants
into the air. - 3 to 6 billion trees are cut down every year with 43% for paper products. - communication (snail mail) - newspapers - homework - books - paper money - toilet paper - photographs - need for writing materials Sources Properties So, the structure of paper is mainly chains and chains
of glucose structures More specifically, cellulose is made of chains of a small sugar called glucose, whose chemical structure is C6H12O6. The fibers
also make papers hygroscopic, or able to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment. because the
energy from sunlight that’s released when exposed to heat. Some kinds of paper are also flammable, But lignin starts breaking down when exposed to acid and light. That’s why some papers yellow with age, ... like scrapbook papers ... ... can last
ones... Paper has been a useful tool to mankind throughout history. What is Paper? Although papyrus was one of the first writing sheets made in 3000 BC Egypt, the first “real” paper was created in China in 105 AD by Ts’ai Luno out of pounded rags, and we still base our paper-making process on his methods today. Cellulose is a carbohydrate. It’s an organic compound and has a molecular structure that includes carbon atoms bonded with + hydroxide atoms - But too much water can also break up the fibers. That’s why most papers wrinkle or break easily
when wet. - Most papers have moisture contents of 2-12% to be bendable and foldable And after
the energy is gone and carbon is left, burned papers produce
soot. De-barking & chipping Pulping & Bleaching Water-adding Pressing Drying Sizing/Coating Winding/Cutting Distributing/Selling - Water plasticizes the cellulose fibers and chains, or makes them more flexible - Americans buy 62 million newspapers every day and throw out 44 million of them. - Some paper making machines can be 150 m long and process 2000 m of paper per minute! Did You Know? They also need
around 17 trees and 16,320 kilowatt-hours to make one ton of paper. Approximately 4 barrels of oil and 4,200 kilowatt hours of energy are saved for every ton of recycled paper The longest factory part is the drying cylinders, which
heat the papers up to 100˚C with steam to dry. There are actually two types of pulping: and chemical, where the wood is cooked with chemicals and more lignin is removed mechanical, where the wood is ground to separate fibers, - However, some paper companies
also recycle 90% of the water they
use, and clean it before
returning it to its source. - Many companies also use fibers from recycled papers, which can be reused 5-7 times to make new products! and wood to make 1 kilogram of paper. 100-1000 L of fresh water energy water, also - The lignin and wood waste from
chemical pulping also acts as
fuel, so chemical pulping
places recycle by-products
as energy for the
machines. Image Sources: