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Albert Bandura 325
Transcript of Albert Bandura 325
observationally through modeling: from
observing others, one forms an idea of how
new behaviors are performed, and on
later occasions this coded information
serves as a guide for action.”
(Bandura). Social Learning Theory •Bandura’s interest in learning and behaviorism began while at the University of Iowa.
• In the 1960's he developed his social learning theory
In social settings, we learn through imitation
Through a cognitive process, we learn how to perform a new behavior and the probable consequences
•In the 1980's he began to develop his self efficacy theory Bandura Background •Example: Melissa wants the doll that Sarah is playing with. She hits Sarah and takes the toy. Melissa will now know that if she hits the next time, she will get what she wants. •After analyzing children and adults, it is found that children imitate the behavior they have seen.
antisocial behavior •Children imitate family, teachers, peers, and the media. •Children also notice and experience rewards, punishments, and emotions with these behaviors. •When children see a behavior reinforced, they will try it for themselves; when they experience it directly, they will most likely repeat it. Overall Idea and Effectiveness Opinions •Albert Bandura focuses on the acquisition of behaviors. He believes that people acquire behaviors through the observation of others, then imitate what they have observed.
•“People learn through observing others’ behavior attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors.” Review Social Learning Theory Recap Children learn aggressive behavior by observing it The teacher needs to be a good role model in their classroom and demonstrate good qualities:
responsibility, understanding, resolves problems properly
The student will observe these qualities and start doing the same Experiment proves that children would copy an adult role model's behavior.
He wanted to show, by using aggressive and non-aggressive actors, that a child
would tend to imitate and learn from the behavior of a trusted adult.
The Bobo doll is an inflatable toy about five feet tall, designed to spring
back upright when knocked over.
Children were chosen as subjects for the study, because they have less
social conditioning; they have also had less instruction and teaching of the
rules of society than adult subjects. BoBo Doll Studies human behavior in terms of interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences Social Learning Process
4.Motivation — having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as a past (i.e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model) 1.Attention — various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value. One’s characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention. 2.Retention — remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal 3.Reproduction — reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction. Reciprocal Determinism Social Environment: physical and social setting in which people live or something happens Theory that states a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and social environment. Personal Factors: thoughts, emotions, motivations and behavior Conditions for Effective Modeling "In order to motivate students academically, they need to believe that they can succeed." Classroom Management &
The Social Learning Theory Teaching Techniques Modeling
Questioning while demonstrating
Linking school to real life experiences Motivators Positive discipline and reinforcement
Recognition Lev Vygotsky Similar Theories Social Development Theory ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)
MKO (More Knowledgeable Other) Jean Lave Situated Learning Theory Social Interaction
Activity, Context, and Culture As opposed to Skinner, Bandura believes learning must include internal cognitive variables
Believed in vicarious reinforcement
Observational learning process
reinforcement & motivational Bandura's Theories Self Efficacy General judgements of our abilities are called 'self-efficacy' appraisals Have strong effects on our motivations
Perceived self-efficacy is what we believe we are good and bad at
Having more optimistic self-efficacy, according to Bandura, is a good thing- allows us to face the challenges of life with confidence
Develops throughout our lives, from infancy to old age "Students who develop a strong sense of self-efficacy are well equipped to educate themselves when they have to rely on their own initiative" self Efficacy in Classroom Skills + efficacy beliefs = effective functioning Performance increases in proportion as perceived self efficacy increases