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Architecture Past_Present_Future

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som souvong

on 24 May 2016

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Transcript of Architecture Past_Present_Future

ALDO LEOPOLD LEGACY CENTER
-BARABOO, WISCONSIN
A. USE ENERGY CALCULATIONS SOFTWARES
B. USE SUSTAINABLE TECHNIQUES TO BECOME A NET ZERO BUILDING

ARCHITECTURE PAST
ARCHITECTURE PRESENT
ARCHITECTURE FUTURE
Paths generated by an algorithm and any digital 3d form allow machines to extrude material using an additive process.

-Janjaap Ruijssenaars plans to be the first to build a house using 3D printing.
-Has potential to be four times faster than regular construction, and much cheaper.

3D PRINTING
Digital Fabrication
Bio-Mimicry
New Frontiers

PRE-HISTORY
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-manual labor
-hand made tools
-cut stone
-rammed earth
TEMPLE OF DELPHI
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-ESTABLISHED A SET OF RULES FOR DESIGN
-INTEGRATION OF ART INTO ARCHITECTURE
-THE COLUMN
-THE GOLDEN SECTION

1. PRE-HISTORY 3,200 BC to 900 BC

2. ANCIENT GREECE 800 to146 BC
12. WHERE IS ARCHITECTURE TODAY?
15. CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
A. COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
B. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
C. CURRENT ARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENTS
INTRODUCTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS

4. GOTHIC 1100 to 1450 AD
5. RENAISSANCE 1400 to 1600 AD
6. NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL 1730 to 1925 AD
7. GOTHIC REVIVAL 1905-1930 AD
8. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1712 to 1908 AD
9. MODERNISM 1900 to Present
10. POST MODERNISM 1972 to Present
11. CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE 1980 to Present
16. WHERE IS ARCHITECTURE HEADED?
Magnus Larsson-Sand Dune Architecture

13. COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
14. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
A. SOLAR ENERGY
-ORIENTATION OF THE BUILDING TAKES FULL ADVANTAGE OF DAY LIGHTING OPPORTUNITIES
-SHADING OF THE BUILDING REDUCES SOLAR GAIN AND THERMAL BRIDGING
-THE USE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS HARVESTS SUNLIGHT FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION
-THERMAL WATER HEATERS PROVIDE HOT WATER FOR OCCUPANTS
-NEW ALTERNATIVE: COLLECT/FILTER SOLAR ENERGY WITH ALGAE
B. WIND ENERGY
-ORIENTATION OF THE BUILDING AND PLACEMENT OPERABLE WINDOWS
ALLOWS FOR NATURAL VENTILATION
-WIND TURBINES AND WIND MILLS CAPTURE AND TRANSFORM IT INTO USEABLE ENERGY
C. WATER MANAGEMENT
-STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PLANS HELP TO RE-USE AND RECYCLE WATER ON SITE
-USE OF GREEN ROOFS, RAIN GARDENS, AND BIO SWALES
-CAPTURING WATER FOR TOILETS, FIRE SPRINKLERS SYSTEMS.
A. 3D MODELING
-ALLOWS FOR VIEWING HOW SPACE WILL LOOK BEFORE BUILDING IT
-ALLOWS FOR BUILDING ANALYSIS AND EXPLORATION
-CREATIVE BUILDING DESIGN
C. ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE
-ANALYZES CLIMATE DATA
-MEASURES ENERGY CONSUMPTION
-PREDICTS SOLAR GAINS AND LOSSES
ROMAN COLOSSEUM
ROMAN AQUEDUCT
ARCH OF TITUS
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-CONCRETE
-THE ARCH
-THE DOME
-CITY PLANNING
-BRICK
-INVENTION OF GLASS
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-THE FLYING BUTTRESS
-STAINED GLASS
-OPERABLE WINDOWS/VENTILATION
THE PANTHEON
ST. PETERS BASILICA
VILLA ROTUNDA
TOWER OF PISA
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-ENLIGHTENMENT OF ALL TRADES
-EMPOWERED BUILDING DESIGN TO THE PROFESSION OF ARCHITECTURE
-THE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS WAS RATIONAL AND WELL PLANNED
NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL
TEMPLE OF ATHENA
US CAPITOL BUILDING
THE WHITE HOUSE
THOMAS JEFFERSON (MONTICELLO)
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA
US SUPREME COURT
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-CLASSED "GREEK" ARCHITECTURE AS CIVIC BUILDING
The bridge between complex geometries and reality

Generated by computer to handle non-uniform components
The Digital Form
image from Synthesis Design + Architecture
3D PRINTING
DIGITAL FABRICATION
DIGITAL FABRICATION
DIGITAL FABRICATION
WIKI-HOUSE
Open source architecture
Design and build your own house
Download and print the pieces with a CNC (computer numeric control) machine

Build a house in a day with only 2 people
The computer and CNC machine are all you need to build your own house
DIGITAL FABRICATION
WIKI-HOUSE
DIGITAL FABRICATION
WIKI-HOUSE
Magnus Larsson invented a methodology for creating structures by injecting bacteria into sand dunes, creating sandstone structures through calcification.
BIOMIMICRY
SAND DUNE ARCHITECTURE
WESTMINSTER PLACE & BIG BEN
WESTMINSTER ABBEY
DUKE UNIVERSITY
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
CLASSED "GOTHIC" ARCHITECTURE AS CIVIC BUILDINGS
COAL BROOKE DALE BRIDGE
CRYSTAL PALACE
EIFFEL TOWER
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-CAST IRON
-MACHINED POWER REPLACE MANUAL LABOR
-ESTABLISHED THE BUILDING AS A "KIT OF PARTS"
-REINFORCED CONCRETE
-SHEET GLASS
-ELECTRICITY
BIOMIMICRY
SAND DUNE ARCHITECTURE
FALLING WATER
VILLA SAVOYE
BAUHAUS
Farnsworth House (Chicago)
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-INSULATION
-ESCALATOR
-ELEVATOR
-FIRE SAFETY CODES
-STEEL
-SPECIALIZATION OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEER
PORTLAND BUILDING
AT&T BUILDING
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
-USE OF PHONE AND FAX IN THE OFFICE
INDIGENOUS SHELTERS
PRE-HISTORY
PYRAMIDS OF GIZA
PRE-HISTORY
THE PARTHENON
ANCIENT GREECE
TEMPLE OF DELPHI
ANCIENT GREECE
ANCIENT GREECE
ANCIENT ROME
ANCIENT ROME
ANCIENT ROME
ANCIENT ROME
GOTHIC
GOTHIC
RENAISSANCE
RENAISSANCE
RENAISSANCE
NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL
NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL
NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL
NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL
NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL
GOTHIC REVIVAL
GOTHIC REVIVAL
GOTHIC REVIVAL
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
MODERNISM
MODERNISM
MODERNISM
MODERNISM
POST MODERNISM
POST MODERNISM
A. THE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
B. WHERE IS ARCHITECTURE TODAY
C. ARCHITECTURE OF THE FUTURE
WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE?
MILWAUKEE ART MUSEUM ( WISCONSIN, USA)
CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM (BILBOA, SPAIN)
CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
CCTV BUILDING (BEIJING, CHINA)
CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
NY TIMES BUILDING (NY, USA)
CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION
-INTERNET
-GLOBAL COMMUNICATION
-SOLAR ENERGY
-GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
-BIM
B. BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM)
-COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ALLOWS FOR COMPLEX AND COMPREHENSIVE BUILDING DESIGN SOFTWARE
-ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE TO UNDERSTAND THE THERMODYNAMICS OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND MONITOR ENERGY
BIM SOFTWARE LISTS
•Autodesk Revit Architecture
•Graphisoft ArchiCAD
•Nemetschek Allplan Architecture
•Gehry Technologies - Digital Project Designer
•Nemetschek Vectorworks Architect
•Bentley Architecture
•4MSA IDEA Architectural Design (IntelliCAD)
•CADSoft Envisioneer
•Softtech Spirit
•RhinoBIM (BETA)

Adrian Smith+Gordon Gill Architecture: Masdar Headquarter

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
SOFTWARE LISTS
•Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
•Autodesk Green Building Studio
•Graphisoft EcoDesigner
•IES Solutions Virtual Environment VE-Pro
•Bentley Tas Simulator
•Bentley Hevacomp
•DesignBuilder
D. GEOTHERMAL
-REGULATE INCOMING FRESH AIR THROUGHOUT THE EARTH'S TEMPERATURE
-WARMS WINTER AIR AND COOLS SUMMER AIR WITHOUT CONSUMING ENERGY

E. SMART BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
-SENSORY THERMAL COMFORT REACTS TO ROOM OCCUPANCY
-REACTS TO SOLAR GAINS BY LOWERING SHADE
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
A. GREEN MOVEMENT
-BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES ARE DRIVING FORCE IN DESIGN
-ALDO LEOPOLD CENTER-KUBALA WASHATKO ARCHITECTS
B. CONTEMPORARY
-DIVERSE AESTHETIC STYLES. FORM DRIVEN WITH RESPECT FROM THE PAST
-MILWAUKEE ART MUSEUM ADDITION-SANTIAGO CALATRAVA
C. NEW URBANISM
-EMPHASIS ON WALK ABILITY AND BIKING, SHIFTING AWAY FROM
VEHICLES
-MASDAR CITY ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES-NORMAN FOSTER
AND OTHER ARCHITECTS
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
D. DECONSTRUCTIVISM
-A SCULPTURED STYLE BASED ON UNPREDICTABILITY AND CONTROLLED
CHAOS, STRAYING FROM RECTILINEAR TRADITION
-DENVER ART MUSEUM-DANIEL LIBESKIND
E. PREFAB
-DESIGN DRIVEN BY OF-SITE CONSTRUCT-ABILITY, REDUCING IMPACT ON BUILDING CONTEXT
-LOBLOLLY HOUSE-KIEREN TIMBERLAKE

F. BLOBISM
-AMORPHOUS, CURVILINEAR DESIGNS THAT HAVE BULBOUS, AMOEBA LIKE FORM.
-AQUA TOWER, CHICAGO-STUDIO GANG
G. SOCIAL DESIGN
-DRIVEN TO IMPROVE HUMAN LIVING AND WELL-BEING
-DISASTER RELIEF
-PAPER CONSTRUCTION-SHIGERU BAN
H. CRAFT
-EMPHASIS ON LOCALISM AND HANDMADE DESIGNS

I. MINIMALISM
-SIMPLICITY, FEW TO NO COLOR, COLD LIGHT, LARGE SPACE MINIMUM
OBJECTS AND FURNITURE
-21_21 DESIGN SIGHT, TOKYO-TADAO ANDO
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE (CASE STUDY)
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE
CURRENT MOVEMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE

Adrian Vincent Kumar, Yun Kong Sung
New Zealand (EVOLO-Competition)
CONCLUSION: Technological advancement and globalization cause architecture
to move away from a specific style. The future of architectural design is actually a blur.


White Cloud
Skyscraper
The White Cloud Project is an air purification network of skyscrapers. .


Early humans initially used architecture purely for shelter using whatever materials were available. Earth mounds, lean-to structures, and indigenous designs were developed. As society progressed, so did their structures. What was once necessity soon became luxury with monuments such as the Pyramids of Giza, and other monolithic creations.
Ancient Greek buildings were constructed according to precise rules. The Classical Orders were developed: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, which defined the column styles that continue to influence building designs up to this day.
3. ANCIENT ROME 753 BC to 27 BC ( Roman Empire begins 64 AD to 1453 AD)
Due to the domination of the Roman Empire for centuries, Roman architecture developed to a high level of sophistication. From the invention of the brick, to our gridded streets, Roman architecture is still engrained in architectural language today. Influenced initially by Greek Architecture, Romans took the Classical style and made it their own, adding new language to an already fluent one.
Gothic innovations led to taller, more graceful architecture
with features like pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, and
flying buttresses. This caused a rise in magnificent
cathedrals like Notre Dame and Chartres Cathedral.
A return to the classical ideas in Italy, France, and England the Renaissance was called the "Age of Awakening." Despite similar influences, regional styles were developed within the Renaissance leading to strong divergence in European styles.
Refining styles from the Renaissance, architects inspired a return to the classical shapes in Europe, Great Britain, and the United States. These building were proportional and in accordance with the classical orders with details from ancient Greece and Rome. Neo-Classicism is recognized today as an institutional or authoritative style mostly prevalent in educational and government buildings.
Gothic ideas are revisited and applied to modern buildings, Gargoyles, arched windows, and other various medieval details are embedded in soaring skyscrapers. Gothic style is also expressed in a modern materiality with cast iron replacing stone.
The Industrial Revolution was a time when many important inventions were made. Skilled labor shifted to repetitive and efficient factory work, causing a move from rural farming to urban city life. It was a time of rapid change and advancement in materials and construction methods.
The 20th century was the first time man attempted to remove history and culture from design by rejecting ornamentation. Spurred by the Industrial Revolution's mass production, Modernism searched for a machine-like aesthetic in different ways. Modern day trends include the Bauhaus school, Constructivism, Formalism and De Stijl.
"Less is more" Mies van der Rohe
A new reaction against the modernist approach to ornamentation. Post-modern architects explored classical ideas of ornamentation in new playful ways. "Less is bore" - Robert Venturi
Contemporary architecture is an umbrella term for styles developed within the past 30 years. It is the culmination of the divergent styles created by the Modern Style and spurred on by Post-Modernism.
NEW FRONTIER-BUILD ON THE WATER
NEW FRONTIER -BUILD ON THE MOON


20. ARCHITECTS: IN THE OFFICE AND ON SITE
From conception to completion, an architect develops a building from start to finish. Starting with a sketch and developing it into a digital model to create construction documents, architects make sure the building is up to the standard of quality and safety they designed it for.
INITIAL SKETCHES: AN IDEA IS BORN, AND HAMMERED INTO A WORKABLE DESIGN.
A DIGITAL MODEL CREATES A TANGIBLE AND REALISTIC REPRESENTATION OF THE FUTURE BUILDING TO COME.
As our technology improves, it is the job of the architect to keep abreast. Architects must be versatile in their knowledge of alternative energy sources and environmentally responsible practices within the built environment.
Computers have streamlined the process of documentation and collaboration within the profession. They also play a vital role in calculating optimum solutions for designs, maximizing performance while keeping budget in mind. Seeing a realistic interpretation helps architects communicate their visions more effectively.
Architects today follow many different paths and styles based on past movements and influences. The computer and internet have only proliferated the blending of styles and design philosophies. The following styles are the most prominent and tangible, yet no one architect has to fall in a specific style or category.
17. DIGITAL FABRICATION
Digital Fabrication allows for the direct application of digital data to appear physically. Whether 2 dimensional profiles, or complex 3d geometries, digital fabrication takes the expensive, labor intensive part of design and simplifies it into a streamline process run from a machine. The possibilities are endless, and the lines between digital and physical will continue to blur with time.
18. Bio-Mimicry
Architects have been mimicking nature since day one. Columns were first inspired by trees, after all. Nature has always been the role-model of the designer. Some architects blend science and design, viewing buildings as living organism that breath, or using natural processes to build structures.
19. New Frontiers
As the world becomes more populated, we strive to find new contexts in which we can design and build for. Whether searching for solutions to urban sprawl, or colonizing in space, architects will be addressing the problems of the future.
SITE VISITS OCCUR TO ENSURE THE PROJECT IS PROGRESSING SMOOTHLY. SOME PROBLEMS REQUIRE AN ARCHITECT'S PRESENCE FOR A SOLUTION.
Doris Kim Sung design metal that breathes like skin. Two metals with different coefficients of expansion are laminated together, allowing them to curl when exposed to different temperature swings. An automatic response like this is seen in human skin, and creates many possibilities for smarter buildings.
BIOMIMICRY
SAND DUNE ARCHITECTURE
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