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Mapping the School to Prison Pipeline

Forward Change Consulting
by

Tia Martinez

on 4 June 2016

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Transcript of Mapping the School to Prison Pipeline

Stalled social mobility means
disadvantage passes to their children
Residential instability, unemployment and untreated health problems
increases probability of recidivism

Upon release from prison,
felon status makes all the outlawed old forms of discrimination legal

Felony conviction and incarceration in prison
From 1970 to 2010 the number of people in prison increased by 430%
Juvenile detention increases
probability of adult incarceration by 22 percentage points
Dropping out of high school
doubles to quadruples the probability of going to prison
Leads to increase in chance of arrest

and
3x risk of contact with juvenile justice system
Decrease in supervised learning time
contributes to falling academically behind (2x likely to be retained) and disengagement from school (2x as likely to drop out)
Out of School Suspension
Since 1972 the probability of being suspended during the school year doubled for Latinos and nearly tripled for African Americans
Children of incarcerated parents – especially boys -
more likely to display “externalizing behavior”

Out of School Suspension
Juvenile incarceration
increases school disengagement and the probability of dropping out by 13 percentage points
Felony conviction and incarceration in prison
Residential instability, unemployment and untreated health problems
increases probability of recidivism

Legal discrimination
increases probability of

low earnings, housing instability, and untreated health problems

Decrease in supervised learning time
contributes to falling academically behind (2x likely to be retained) and disengagement from school (2x as likely to drop out)
Since 1972 the probability of being suspended during the school year doubled for Latinos and nearly tripled for African Americans
Increase in
unsupervised time in poor, racially segregated neighborhoods leads to
increased exposure to "order maintenance" policing +
community
violence
Which in turn leads to an increase in the chance of arrest,
tripling the likelihood of contact with juvenile justice system
Upon release from prison,
felon status makes all the outlawed old forms of discrimination legal

Dropping out of high school
doubles to quadruples the probability of going to prison
Juvenile detention increases
probability of adult incarceration by 22 percentage points
From 1970 to 2010 the number of people in prison increased by 430%
School to Prison/Immigrant Detention Pipeline
12-17
18-24
25 and up
Two decades after release from prison,
75% remain in the bottom 20% of the income distribution
Stalled social mobility means
disadvantage passes to their children
Children of incarcerated parents – especially boys -
more likely to display “externalizing behavior”

Elementary School
Police
Juvenile Justice
Jail
Prison
Felony Record
Detention and deportation
Intergenerational
Since 1996, immigrant detention has increased by 500%

Juvenile incarceration
increases school disengagement and the probability of dropout by 13 percentage points
Legal discrimination
increases probability of

low earnings, housing instability, and untreated heatlh problems

Increase in
unsupervised time in poor, racially segregated neighborhoods leads to
increased exposure to broken windows policing +
community
violence
School to Prison/Immigrant Detention Pipeline
12-17
18-24
24 and up
Two decades after release from prison,
75% remain in the bottom 20% of the income distribution
School
Police
Juvenile Justice
Jail
Prison
Felony Record
Detention and deportation
Intergenerational
Since 1996, immigrant detention hs increased by 500%

Having a parent who is incarcerated, suffering from mental illness and/or substance abuse = Adverse Childhood Experience (ACES) associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as adults
Expand juvenile re-entry services that reconnect young men to school
Expand opportunities for disconnected youth to reconnect to school and work
Close youth prisons and limit direct file eligibility
Expand opportunities for retrospective record clearing and "certificates of rehabilitation"
Remove restrictions on receipt of public benefits; "ban the box" for public employment
Expand re-entry supports inc. access to subsidized employment, housing and substance abuse and mental health treatment; reform parole
Reallocate resources away from criminal justice and into health, education, housing and jobs

Expand trauma-informed pediatric care and provide intergenerational healing supports
Reform school discipline and stop school push out
Expand school based health centers, full service community schools, and trauma-informed care
Change policing practices and expand youth development and employment opportunities
Expand diversion and restorative justice in JJ and CJ system; Remove school police from schools
Reform draconian sentencing guidelines, repeal tough-on-crime statutes, and reclassify non-violent felonies as misdemeanors
Reform immigration policies, limit local law enforcements' role in immigration control
Leverage ACA/Medicaid to expand health coverage; screen for ACEs and provide trauma-informed care
Reform state and district policies that promote school push out
Improve quality and quantity of culturally and gender responsive instruction
Having a parent who is incarcerated, suffering from mental illness and/or substance abuse = Adverse Childhood Experience (ACES) associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as adults
53% of people in prison have a substance abuse issue, 56% have a mental health problem
Each additional year in prison produces a 2-year decline in life expectancy

Nationally, 68% of black men without highschool degrees go to prison by age 35
In California, 90% of black men without high school degrees go to prison by age 35
Conflict between teacher and student
Teacher makes an office referral
Secondary School
5-11
Do not be daunted by the world’s grief. You are not obligated to complete the work but neither are you free to abandon it.

Talmud

Conflict between teacher and student
Family
&
Child
Neighborhood & Community
Family
0-4
Pre-K
Family
&
Child
Neighborhood & Community
Conflict between teacher and student
Teacher makes an office referral
Elementary School
0-4
Family
Pre-K
5-11
Authentic School-Parent Partnerships; Teacher home visits
Train teachers in restorative practices that hold students accountable and includes them in problem solving and resolution
Improve teachers classroom management and social emotional skills; Train on trauma, implicit bias and culturally responsive teaching
Build school culture and system that supports meaningful teacher/student relationships (e.g. community circles, student voice)
Instruct students on how to meet behavioral expectations; Build students' social emotional skills, address impact of trauma and toxic stress
Work with teachers, students, and staff to define and build agreement on core values and behavioral expectations; Reward and recognize good behavior


District and principal leadership commitment + provide a menu of tiered behavioral supports and partner or hire to bring in social workers
Full transcript