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The English Reformation
Transcript of The English Reformation
-Only months after their wedding Arthur died of the "sweating illness" . To keep the dowry and their alliance the families agreed that Henry would marry Catherine.
The wedding had to be postponed, however, because Henry was still too young. During the waiting time, King Henry VII became less interested in this union partially because after her mother died, Catherine's value decreased. He made an engagement with Maximilian I's sister.
-During this time, Catherine lived almost as a hostage, with very little money. She became the spanish ambassador. After his father's death, Henry soon married Catherine.
-To marry they needed permission from the Pope, Catherine declared that her marriage had not been
They were crowned in 1509.
During their marriage, Catherine had many miscarriages, the first was a daughter soon
after their wedding. She gave birth to a son in 1511, but he died 52 days after. She had to
two other miscarriages of male heirs. On Feb. 18, 1516 Mary was born. Catherine did not
birth to another son after that. The lack of heir debilitated the Tudor dynasty and their marriage.
A Conflicted Marriage
Anne Boleyn & the Annulment
-Anne Boleyn entered the English court as a lady in waiting for the queen. She had been educated in France, where courtly culture was heavily emphasized. Although the king was interested in her, she refused to be his mistress.
-King Henry was a devout catholic at the time. He co-wrote
The Defense of the Sacraments
with his adviser Thomas More.
-His knowledge of scripture influenced him believe his marriage was divinely curse:
"And if a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his brother's nakedness; they shall be childless"
(Leviticus 20:21). He used this verse to requests a papal annulment on the basis of incest.
He needed this to marry Anne and legitimize any possible heir.
Pope Clement VII was unable to oblige for he was under the authority of the HRE Charles V after the "treaty of Cognan"
In September 1526, the Charles' armies sacked Rome and made the pope a virtual prisoner. He would not allow for the Spanish crown to lose influence in England and his aunt Catherine to be humiliated. In this same year, Queen Catherine appealed to Rome to end the affair.
In 1529 a court case for the divorce was opened in England and a "reformation parliament" was created.
Henry's highest adviser Thomas Wosley is replaced by Thomas More. Thomas Cranmer is appointed Archbishop of
Seeing that they would not get papal permission, Anne suggested the king to review
On the Obedience of a Christian Man
by the English protestant William Tyndale. This work advocated that the ruler of a kingdom was also the supreme authority of its church rather than the Pope. Henry used this idea to take further steps away from the papacy.
-He stripped the clergy of its authority for its connection to Rome.
In 1532, in a convocation at Canterbury, Bishop Edward Fox presented the clergy with the King's new demands:
1. The clergy no longer had authority to dictate Cannon Law.
2. All present laws were to be re considered by a committee appointed by the king (half clergy, half court officials) to test their legitimacy and discard those found offensive.
3. The remaining laws were to be approved by the king.
Confirmed in 1532 by parliament with the Act for the Submission of the Clergy and Restraint of Appeals.
Steps away from the Roman Church...
" ... we thought that the clergy of our realm had been our subjects wholly, but now we have well perceived that they be but half our subjects, yea, and scarce our subjects; for all the prelates at their consecration make an oath to the Pope, clean contrary to the oath that they make to us, so that they seem to be his subjects, and not ours"
In a speech, Henry VIII publicly denounced the clergy:
Henry requested the clergy to pay 100,000 for royal pardons and he dictated terms which recognized him as the "sole protector and Supreme Head of the Church and clergy of England" , proclaim his spiritual jurisdiction and stated that all church privileges would end if they did not follow these laws.
Starting 1536, Cromwell created a set of administrative legislation which
and convents in England, Ireland and Wales and authorize the crown to appropriate their income and property.
The King authorized his own divorce and then married Anne Boleyn. She is thought to have been pregnant during their wedding.
She was crowned in June 1st, 1533.
Lady Mary, Catherine's daughter, was declared a bastard and Catherine was kept as a prisoner,no longer a queen.
1534 Henry enacted the
Act of Supremacy.
He wanted a reconciliation with Charles V. Knowing that the emperor would want Mary to be re-stated as legitimate heir, thus casting Anne's daughter Elizabeth, Cromwell needed to be rid of Anne.
Anne had a miscarriage (a boy) which deeply troubled the king. She was placed in prison two weeks after on basis of high treason and incest, found guilty and executed.
Cromwell continued to attack catholic idolatry and lavish churches. In 1537 he symbolically burned a statue of the Virgin Mary.
Henry was uncomfortable with these reforms. In his mind, a perfect church was one that was autonomous from the papacy, married to the English crown,cleansed from the secrecy of rituals but catholic at its chore. In 1543, he restricted the reading of the English bible to churchmen. He favored a middle ground between his catholic roots and this new convenient church.
Henry's Death & A New Worship
Henry died in 1547 and Jane Seymour's son Edward took the throne. He was only 9.
His administration was managed by fervent protestants, led by Thomas Cranmer, who saw the young boy as a biblical king through whom they would destroy catholic idolatry and bring forth a real reformation.
In his short reign, Edward banned palm Sunday, cult of saints, prohibited the worship of relics, pilgrimages.
Eradicated paintings and establish a new English common book of prayer through the Act of Uniformity in 1549.
Bloody Mary 's Catholic Reign
Edward's sister Mary opposed these new laws and insisted on hearing mass everyday despite it being banned.
Mary remained zealously catholic and determined to restore the traditional church to England.
When Edward became terminally ill, his advisers designed a "devise for the succession" to prevent a catholic return. In this document Edward declared his cousin Lady Jane as his heir, excluding Elizabeth and Mary.
She ruled for 13 days before being deposed.
Mary became queen in July 1553.
She immediately restored the rituals prohibited under the Act of Uniformity and commissioned the restoration of churches.
She granted pardons to the clergy who were once again received by the pope.
She persecuted protestants and all those who she saw as defiant to her faith. Around 280 people were burnt by her decree, including Thomas Cranmer.
She married Philip of Spain who by English law became joint sovereign of England with Mary . All decisions needed to have their signatures, despite her regency.
Unlike her beloved mother, her subjects saw her as a foreigner who preferred the Spanish kingdom over their land.
She suffered two false pregnancies, the last one was actually a cancerous tumor. She died childless in 1558.
After her death, Elizabeth came to the throne. She assumed a
more moderate approach to religion: she abolish the mass but encouraged
clerical celibacy and kept the Catholic calendar of saints. Under her reign,
persecutions were scarce.
The English Reformation
Cranmer was archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1556) and a leader of the English Reformation who was responsible for establishing the basic structures of the Church of England.
In 1533, Cranmer was chosen to be archbishop of Canterbury and forced (for a time) to hide his married status. Once he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, Cranmer declared Henry's marriage to Catherine void, and four months later married him to Anne Boleyn.
After Edward VI's death, Cranmer supported Lady Jane Grey as successor. Her nine-day reign was followed by the Roman Catholic Mary I, who tried him for treason. After a long trial and imprisonment, he was forced to proclaim to the public his error in the support of Protestantism, an act designed to discourage followers of the religion.
Despite this, Cranmer was sentenced to be burnt to death in Oxford on 21 March 1556.
He dramatically stuck his right hand, with which he had signed his recantation, into the fire first.
-Many were against Henry's departure with Catholicism, as it is evident in the protests of 1536, the Lincolnshire Rising and The Pilgrimage Grace (Yorkshire)
This uprising threatened the crown because among the protesters were prominent aristocratic figures.
-People not only rejected the removal of the catholic rites but also
disproved of the the king's divorce since Catherine had been very popular. The King's death sentence of Anne Boleyn, though she was not loved, also hurt his image.
-Northerners saw the church as a communal center and were worried this would change with the new doctrines. There was also a rumor that baptism might be taxed.
-However, a majority accepted the changes, which shows that people believed the church needed a radical change and a cleansing of corruption.
The People's Response
Cragoe, Carold D. "English Reformation: The People's View." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2014.
Schama, Simon. "Burning Convictions."
A History of Britain
. BBC One. London, 2002. Television.
"Mary I." Mary I.
, 6 Feb. 2012. Web. 06 Apr. 2014. <http://tudorhistory.org/mary/>.
"Thomas Cranmer." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.