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An Introduction to Neuroanatomy

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Katherine Taylor

on 23 June 2016

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Transcript of An Introduction to Neuroanatomy


Welcome to 'An Introduction to Neuroanatomy'

This learning resource is aimed at year 1&2 medical students learning basic neuroanatomy.

The aim of the resource is to reinforce learning outcomes specified in the Swansea GEM curriculum.

There will also be a short quiz to reinforce your learning.

I hope you enjoy this resource!
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this resource you should be able to identify the structure and function of the:

Cerebral cortex - the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex

Brainstem - the midbrain, pons and medulla

Cerebellum - the lobes and function of the cerebellum

Basal ganglia - the globus pallidus, striatum and substantia nigra

Thalamus and hypothalamus

Ventricular system - the third, fourth and lateral ventricles
Glossary of Neuro-Anatomical Terms
Executive functions
A set of highly complex cognitive processes
which are used to manage and coordinate other cognitive abilities
i.e. they allow humans to focus on, plan and complete complex tasks using reasoning, working memory and problem solving.
Sulcus
From the Latin word for ‘furrow’.
A groove in the cerebral cortex.

Gyrus
From the Latin word for ‘circle’.
A ridge or depression in the cerebral cortex, surrounded by sulci.

Plural - sulci
Plural - gyri
Homunculus
Latin for 'little man'.
A neurological representation of the body within the brain.
The cerebral cortex has a motor homunculus (in the primary motor cortex) and a sensory homunculus (in the primary sensory cortex).
Different body parts are mapped to specific areas of the cerebral cortex which process motor tasks or sensory input from that bodily region.

White matter
One of two types of tissue in the central nervous system (the other being grey matter); white matter contains myelinated axons which form connections between neuronal cell bodies in the grey matter.
The fatty myelin sheath gives the white colouration.

Grey matter
The other type of tissue in the central nervous system; grey matter mostly contains neuron cell bodies.
Anatomical Directions
In addition to the terms anterior/posterior, medial/lateral and superior/inferior; the brain and spinal cord are described using some additional anatomical terms.
Rostral
From the Latin word for 'beak'.
Located towards the oral or nasal area.
Caudal
Dorsal
Ventral
From the Latin word for 'tail'.
Located towards the tail or away from the head.
From the Latin word for 'back'.
Located towards the back surface of the body.
Imagine the dorsal fin of a fish.
From the Latin word for 'abdomen or belly'.
Located towards the abdominal or belly region.
The Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of grey matter in the cerebrum.

It is composed of 2 hemispheres (left and right) which are separated in the median plane by the longitudinal fissure.

The cerebral cortex is responsible for higher brain functions like language, memory and executive functions.

The ability of the cerebral cortex to coordinate complex procedures distinguishes humans from more primitive animal species.
Corpus Callosum
The corpus callosum lies deep to the longitudinal fissure - it connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

The corpus callosum is composed of bands of white matter tracts (myelinated axons) running between the two hemispheres allowing inter-hemispheric communication.
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex
The cerebral cortex is composed of four lobes:
Frontal (red)
Parietal (green)
Temporal (blue)
Occipital (yellow)
Each lobe is associated with specific functions and can be located relative to sulci on the surface of the cerebral cortex:
The central sulcus separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
Lateral sulcus separates the temporal lobe from the frontal lobe and parietal lobe
Parieto-occipital sulcus separates the occipital lobe from the parietal lobe
Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobes are the most rostral/anterior of the lobes of the cerebral cortex.

The functions of the frontal lobes include motor processing, speech and language production, and executive functions.

The frontal lobes can be further subdivided based on function.
The primary motor cortex lies in the precentral gyrus, immediately rostral to the central sulcus - its function is to execute voluntary motor tasks.

It contains a motor homunculus - the motor activities of each body part are controlled by a specific region of the primary motor cortex.

Neurons in one hemisphere control the motor activities of the contralateral side of the body i.e. the left side of the primary motor cortex controls movement of the right side of the body and vice versa.
Primary Motor Cortex
Premotor Cortex
The premotor cortex lies immediately rostral to the primary motor cortex.

Its functions include:
Programming and storing motor patterns
Playing a part in the selection of conditioned movements

Prefrontal Area
The prefrontal area houses executive functions e.g.:
Personality
Motor planning
Impulse inhibition
Situational judgement
Broca's Area
Broca's area is responsible for speech and language production.
It is usually located in the dominant cerebral hemisphere, most often on the left (left = language).

Damage to this area can cause ‘Broca’s aphasia’ – difficulty in producing fluent speech, an expressive aphasia:
Patient's written and spoken sentences often lack grammar and omit non-essential words, resulting in disjointed speech.
The ability to read and understand speech is unimpaired (this function is controlled by a different brain region).

Parietal Lobe
The main roles of the parietal lobe are perception and integration of sensory information.

The parietal lobe receives tactile sensory information from all over the body.
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
The primary somatosensory cortex is the region of the parietal lobe that processes the sense of touch - it lies in the postcentral gyrus, immediately caudal to the central sulcus

It contains a sensory homunculus – a sensory map of the body – with each hemisphere mapping the contralateral side of the body.

Each bodily region is represented in the homunculus based on the density of touch receptors in that area as opposed its physical size e.g. the hands have a high density of touch receptors and therefore a large homuncular representation even though their physical size is small vs. the legs which have a smaller representation.
Temporal Lobe
The temporal lobe contains the primary auditory cortex which processes auditory input.

It is also involved in:
Visual processing e.g. recognition of faces and objects
Encoding and storage of new long term memories

Wernicke's Area
Wernicke's area is involved in the comprehension of speech and language
It is located in the superior posterior part of the temporal lobe, usually in the dominant cerebral hemisphere, which is the left in most individuals (left = language).

Damage to this area causes 'Wernicke's aphasia' - difficulty with language understanding (also known as recepive aphasia):
Patient's written and spoken sentences are grammatically correct and spoken fluently but their words do not make sense

Occipital Lobe
The occipital lobe contains the primary visual cortex which processes visual information from the retina.

The occipital lobe analyses visual input and stores visual memories.

The right primary visual cortex processes visual input from the left side of both eyes and vice versa .
As previously stated, the right primary visual cortex processes visual input from the left side of both eyes and vice versa.

This occurs because the optic nerves' medial fibres (which receive visual information from the lateral visual field) cross over at the optic chiasm to travel to the contralateral hemisphere for interpretation. The lateral optic nerve fibres (receiving input from the medial visual field) do not cross so are interpreted by the ipsilateral hemisphere.

The visual pathway is shown opposite. The yellow and red colour coding demonstrate the path of visual input to each side of the primary visual cortex.
Primary Visual Cortex
Welcome!
The Brainstem
The brainstem connects the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord - allowing passage of information between the two structures.
The main functions of the brainstem are:

To allow the passage of neurons between the spinal cord and cerebral cortex, and vice versa
Houses several cranial nerve nuclei
Control basic life functions e.g. cardio-respiratory homeostasis, the sleep-wake cycle, awareness and consciousness
Brainstem Function
Midbrain
The midbrain is the most superior part of the brainstem, it is composed of the tectum and tegmentum.
Tectum - Latin for 'roof'
The tectum is involved in processing of visual and auditory information
Tegmentum - Latin for 'covering'
The tegmentum is involved with motor coordination
It also houses the nuclei of cranial nerves III & IV
Pons
The term 'Pons' is Latin for 'bridge'. Its name is derived from its function in forming a 'bridge' between the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.

The pons is connected to the cerebellum by the cerebellar peduncles.

The pons also houses the nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, VII & VIII.
Medulla Oblongata
The medulla houses:
The cardio-respiratory centre
The vomiting centre
The vasomotor centre (which regulates vascular tone, and therefore blood pressure)

It also houses the nuclei of cranial nerves IX, X, XI & XII.
The Cerebellum
Cerebellum is Latin for 'little brain'.

The cerebellum is tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres.

It is connected to the brainstem by cerebellar peduncles.
Parts of the Cerebellum
The cerebellum has 3 lobes - anterior, posterior and flocculonodular.
The primary fissure divides the anterior and posterior lobes
The posterolateral fissure separates the flocculonodular lobe from the rest of the cerebellum
Cerebellar Function
The cerebellum receives information from both the cerebral cortex and the spinal cord - it integrates these signals to modify and fine tune motor tasks.

Therefore the cerebellum assists in the production of precise and coordinated movements.
Thalamus
The thalamus is a walnut sized organ with two halves/bulbs.

The thalamus lies between the cerebral cortex and midbrain.

The medial surface of the thalamus forms the lateral wall of the third ventricle.
Thalamus Function
The thalamus is ideally positioned for its function - acting as a relay station for sensory and motor signals passing between subcortical structures (e.g. the brainstem) and the cerebral cortex.

The thalamus directs incoming sensory information to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex responsible for processing that input.

e.g. ascending tactile information from the arm travels via the spinal cord, through the brainstem to the thalamus - which directs the sensory information to the primary sensory cortex in the parietal lobe.
Basal Ganglia
The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei associated with modulating voluntary movement.

The basal ganglia are composed of:
Basal Ganglia Function
The primary motor cortex sends motor signals to the basal ganglia which:
Select and moderate stored motor patterns
Inhibit antagonistic motor actions
This allows a smooth and fluent movement to be performed.
Caudate nucleus
Nucleus accumbens
Putamen
Globus pallidus
Substantia nigra
Internal Capsule
The internal capsule is a group of white matter tracts carrying nerve fibres between the cerebral cortex the and brainstem.

The outline of the internal capsule is highlighted in red in the image.

The internal capsule separates the basal ganglia into their different sectors
e.g. divides the putamen and globus pallidus from the thalamus and caudate nucleus.
Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is composed of several small interconnected nuclei and lies inferior to the thalamus but superior to the pituitary gland - as seen on the model opposite.


Hypothalamus Function
The hypothalamus connects the nervous and endocrine systems.

It synthesises and secretes neuro-hormones which act on the pituitary gland to modulate the pituitary's hormone secretion.

The hypothalamus has a major role in maintaining homeostasis and is involved in regulating processes such as:
Circadian rhythms
Growth
Appetite
Temperature
The Ventricular System
The ventricular system is composed of four interconnected cavities within the brain which produce, and are filled with, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

The ventricular system includes:
Supporting the weight of the brain (provides protection by acting as a shock absorber
Homeostatic regulation of the CNS
Clearance of metabolic waste
Nutrient circulation
Cerebrospinal Fluid
CSF is produced by ependymal cells of the choroid plexus.

One choroid plexus is located in each of the 4 ventricular cavities; they are highly vascular structures specialised for CSF production.

CSF is a clear, colourless fluid which is an ultrafiltrate of blood, its functions include:
Right and left lateral ventricles
Third ventricle
Fourth ventricle
The third and fourth ventricles are connected by the cerebral aqueduct.
Lateral Ventricles
The lateral ventricles are C shaped structures, one located in each cerebral hemisphere.

Each lateral ventricle has 3 horns:
Anterior horn projects into the frontal lobe

Inferior horn passes into the temporal lobe

Posterior horn (a narrow offshoot of the C shape) passes into the occipital lobe
Third Ventricle
The third ventricle is located in the midline, with its medial border formed by the 2 lobes of the thalamus and the hypothalamus.

It is connected to the fourth ventricle by the cerebral aqueduct.
Fourth Ventricle
The fourth ventricle traverses from the cerebral aqueduct to the obex (where the fourth ventricle forms the spinal cord's central canal).

It lies within the pons and has a diamond shape.

The fourth ventricle's lateral walls are formed by the cerebral peduncles, its dorsal border is the cerebellum and ventral border is the rhomboid fossa.
The Striatum
The striatum is the collective name given to a group of the basal ganglia nuclei, namely the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus and putamen.
The ventral striatum contains the nucleus accumbens (not visible on image)

The dorsal striatum contains the caudate nucleus and putamen
The internal capsule separates the striatal nuclei, however many grey matter fibres pass between them, giving the striatum a striped appearance (striatum is Latin for ‘striped’).
The Substantia Nigra
The name substantia nigra comes from Latin meaning 'black substance' due to its dark colour.

The substantia nigra is located in the midbrain and is functionally, although not structurally, part of the basal ganglia.

The substantia nigra has two parts:
The pars compacta (medial)
The pars reticulata (lateral)

The pars compacta contains a large number of dopaminergic neurons - these neurons produce melanin, which gives the dark colouration.

The dopaminergic neurons connect extensively with the striatum via the nigrostriatal pathway.
Frontal Lobe
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Temporal Lobe
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Parietal Lobe
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Occipital Lobe
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Introduction to the
Cerebral Cortex

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Back to Main Menu
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Primary motor cortex
Premotor cortex
Prefrontal area
Broca's
area
Primary somatosensory cortex
Wernicke's
area
Introduction to the
Basal Ganglia

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Thalamus
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Hypothalamus
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Substantia Nigra
Parkinson's Disease
Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta occurs in Parkinson's disease.

This produces the classic motor symptoms of:
Bradykinesia
Rigidity
Postural instability
Tremor

These symptoms of Parkinson's Disease demonstrate the importance of the substantia nigra, and the nigrostriatal pathyway to motor control.
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Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Internal Capsule
The thalamus, hypothalamus and internal capsule are NOT parts of the basal ganglia

The 'Basal Ganglia' section of the learning resource was deemed the most appropriate place to discuss these structures because:
They are located close to the basal ganglia
They are important structures for students to recognise on an axial section of the brain, and to distinguish from the basal ganglia in this plane

However please do not get them confused with the basal ganglia structures!
Caudate
nucleus

Putamen
Globus Pallidus
Striatum
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Striatum Function
As with the basal ganglia as a whole, the striatum is involved in the modulation of motor activity - see 'Introduction to the Basal Ganglia' for further information.

The dorsal striatum is a key region of the basal ganglia for recieving motor input signals - it receives information from the cortex, revises this information before projecting it to other basal ganglia regions (e.g. the substantia nigra and globus pallidus) or back to the cortex via the thalamus

The ventral striatum (particularly the nucleus accumbens) is involved in motivation and the reward pathway
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Globus Pallidus
The globus pallidus has two parts - the interna and the externa.

Both parts receive motor information from the striatum, they modify the signal before projecting it to the thalamus which sends it back to the cortex.

For the general functions of the basal ganglia as a whole - see 'Introduction to the Basal Ganglia'
Internal Capsule
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Back to
Main Menu

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Lateral Ventricles
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Third Ventricle
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Fourth Ventricle
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Introduction to the
Ventricular System

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Back to
Main Menu

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Introduction to the Brainstem
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Midbrain
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Pons
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Medulla Oblongata
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the

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Cerebellum
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Back to
Main Menu

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keyboard to continue to begin the quiz

2) Identify the structure indicated by the arrow.
3) Name one function of the lobe of the brain indicated by the arrow.
5) Identify the region of the brainstem indicated by the arrow.
4) Identify the structure indicated by the arrow.
6) Name the substance that fills this space and one function of this substance.
8) Name one cranial nerve whose nucleus is located in the region of the brainstem indicated by the arrow.
7) What is the function of the structure indicated by the arrow?
9) Identify the anatomical landmark indicated by the arrow.
10) Name one function of the structure indicated by the arrow.
11) Identify the space indicated by the arrow.
12) Identify the structure indicated by the arrow.
13) What is the function of the specific cortical area indicated by the arrow.
14) Name one symptom that would result from neurodegeneration affecting this part of the brain.
15) Name the structure indicated by the arrow.
16) Identify the lobe of the brain indicated by the arrow.
18) Describe the symptoms that would result from damage to this structure.
17) Identify the structure indicated by the arrows.
19) Name the specialised cells within this structure that are responsible for production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
20) Identify the specific part and function of the area of cortex indicated by the arrow.
How to use this resource
Automatic mode:
If you want to view all the slides in their intended order simply click the right arrow on your keyboard to move to the next slide or the left arrow to move back.

Manual mode:
Use this mode if you don't wish to view all the slides in order or if there is a particular area of the brain you want to explore in isolation.
From the main menu page, simply mouse click on the relevant coloured button for the topic you want to explore
This should zoom you in to the sub-menu for that region of the brain (e.g. Brainstem)
On this screen, click on the circle of the area you would like to explore (e.g. Midbrain)
WARNING! MANUAL MODE WILL ONLY WORK IF YOU CLICK WITHIN THE CIRCLE YOU WANT TO EXPLORE RATHER THAN ON THE WORDS IN THE CIRCLE OR ON THE REGION OF THE BRAIN IN THE DIAGRAM (e.g. you should click within the circle that says midbrain NOT on the word midbrain or the location of the midbrain in the diagram)
Once zoomed in on the area use the right arrow on the keyboard to view the slides

Gyrus
Sulcus
Left and right cerebral hemispheres
Longitudinal fissure
Central sulcus
Parieto-occipital sulcus
Lateral sulcus
Corpus callosum
Frontal lobes
Its neural connections to the temporal and occipital lobes allows integration of visual and auditory information with tactile input.
Parietal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe
Primary visual
cortex
Incoming visual information
Retina
Optic nerve
Optic chiasm
Optic radiations
The brainstem is a primitive region of the brain and is therefore responsible for many primitive homeostatic functions that are essential for life.

The brainstem can be divided into 3 key parts:
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
oblongata
Midbrain
Tectum
Tegmentum
Tectum
Tegmentum
Cerebral
aqueduct
An axial section through
the midbrain
Pons
Cerebellar
peduncle
Medulla oblongata
Cerebellum
Anterior
lobe
Posterior
lobe
Flocculonodular
lobe
Lateral
ventricles
Third
ventricle
Cerebral
aqueduct
Fourth
ventricle
Anterior horn
Posterior
horn
Inferior
horn
Third
ventricle
Lobes of the thalamus
Cerebral
aqueduct
Fourth
ventricle
Third
ventricle
Lateral
ventricle
Cerebral
aqueduct
A coronal section through the brain
Caudate
nucleus
Globus
pallidus
Putamen
Substantia
nigra
Anterior
limb
Posterior
limb
Internal
capsule
Caudate
nucleus
Putamen
Globus
pallidus
An axial section through the midbrain
Tectum
Tegmentum
Cerebral
aqueduct
Substantia nigra
A coronal section through the brain
An axial section through the brain
An axial section through the brain
An axial section through the brain
Thalamus
Third
ventricle
Pituitary
gland
Hypothalamus
An axial section through the midbrain
Anterior
Posterior
Posterior
Anterior
Anterior
Posterior
References
The End...
Thank you for using this resource! I hope that you found it useful.

As the resource is part of my DPP project I would really appreciate some feedback. It should only take 2 minutes to complete.

Please click on the link to complete a short feedback survey: https://www.surveymonkey.co.uk/r/RFRGJCK

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I understand that my participation in the feedback questionnaire is voluntary and that all the information collected will be kept anonymous
I agree that the information collected can be used for teaching and research purposes, conference presentations and publication in peer-reviewed academic journals
CT and MRI scans
This resource will use some MRI images, all of these images are taken from: http://neuroanatomy.ca/index.html

Remember that when looking at CT and MRI scans of the brain in an axial plane, that you are looking at the patient from the feet up. Therefore structures on the left side of the image are located in the right side of the brain and vice versa.

Anterior/rostral
Posterior/caudal
Left
hemisphere
Right
hemisphere
1) State where the arrow is located using the anatomical directions rostral/caudal or dorsal/ventral.
Corpus Callosum
An MRI scan in the coronal plane
An axial section through the brain
An MRI scan of the brain in the saggital plane
Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
oblongata
Cerebellum
Basal Ganglia and Adjacent Structures
The basal ganglia and adjacent structures are visible on an axial MRI of the brain (below).
Caudate nucleus
Putamen
Thalamus
Internal
capsule
Globus
pallidus
Third
ventricle
Anterior horns of
lateral ventricles
Posterior horns of
lateral ventricles
(optic nerve partial crossing point)
Primary Visual Cortex
The primary visual cortex is located in the most posterior/caudal part of the occipital lobe.

The right primary visual cortex processes visual input from the left side of both eyes and vice versa.
Answer - the part of the brain that the arrow is pointing to is located in a rostral direction.
The image on the left demonstrates the neuroanatomical directions that are used to describe the brain.
Please look back to the 'Introduction to this Learning Resource' section if you would like more information related to this question.
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Answer 2) Identify the structure indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the structure indicated by the arrow is the corpus callosum.

Explanation - the corpus callosum is a band of myelinated white matter tracts connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

Please go back to the 'Introduction to the Cerebral Cortex' section if you would like further information related to this question.
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Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Question 2
Click the right arrow on your keyboard
for Question 3
Answer 3) Name one function of the lobe of the brain indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the left frontal lobe. The main functions of the frontal lobe are:

Motor processing
e.g. execution of voluntary motor tasks (primary motor cortex), programming and storing motor patterns, selection of conditioned movements (premotor cortex)

Language production
e.g. Broca's area

Executive functions
e.g. personality, impulse inhibition, situational judgement (prefrontal area)
For more information on this question please refer to the 'Frontal Lobe' sub-section of the 'Cerebral Cortex' section.
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Answer 4) Identify the structure indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the caudate nucleus.

Explanation - the caudate nucleus is part of the dorsal striatum (along with the putamen) which is part of the basal ganglia. Its function is the modulation of motor activity.

If you would like more information on this question please see the 'Basal Ganglia' section.
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Answer 5) Identify the region of the brainstem indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the midbrain, a more specific answer would be the tegmentum.

Explanation - the midbrain is the most superior part of the brainstem, and the tegmentum is the most anterior/rostral part of the midbrain. The tegmentum houses the nuclei of cranial nerves III & IV and is involved in motor coordination.

For more information related to this question please go back to the 'Brainstem' section.
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Answer 6) Name the substance that fills this space and one function of this substance.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the lateral ventricle which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The main functions of CSF are:
Supporting the weight of the brain (acting as a shock absorber)
Nutrient circulation
Clearance of metabolic waste
Homeostatic regulation of the CNS

For further information related to this question please go back to the 'Ventricular System' section.
Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Answer 7
Answer 7) What is the function of the structure indicated by the arrow?
Answer - the arrow is located in the thalamus. The function of the thalamus is to act as a relay station for sensory and motor signals passing between subcortical structures (e.g. the brainstem) and the cerebral cortex.

For further information related to this question please return to the 'Basal Ganglia' section.
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Answer 8) Name one cranial nerve whose nucleus is located in the region of the brainstem indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the pons. The pons contains the nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, VII and VIII.

For further information related to this question please return to the 'Brainstem' section.
Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Answer 9
Answer 9) Identify the anatomical landmark indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the longitudinal fissure.

Explanation - the longitudinal fissure divides the brain into two hemispheres, left and right, in the median plane.

For further information related to this question please return to the 'Introduction to the Cerebral Cortex' subsection of the 'Cerebral Cortex' section.
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Answer 10) Name one function of the structure indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the medulla oblongata. The medulla has the following functions:
Houses the nuclei of cranial nerves IX, X,XI & XII
Cardio-respiratory centre homeostasis
Houses the vomiting centre
Houses the vasomotor centre (which regulates vascular tone, and therefore blood pressure)

For further information related to this question please see the 'Brainstem' section.
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Answer 11) Identify the space indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the space indicated by the arrow is the third ventricle.

Explanation - the third ventricle lies in the midline, with its medial border formed by the 2 lobes of the thalamus and the hypothalamus.

For further information related to this question please see the 'Ventricular System' section.
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for Question 4
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for Question 5
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Question 15
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for Question 16
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Answer 12) Identify the structure indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the globus pallidus.

Explanation - the globus pallidus is one of the nuclei that makes up the basal ganglia. It lies medial to the putamen.

For more information related to this question please return to the 'Basal Ganglia' section.
Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Answer 13
Answer 13) What is the function of the specific cortical area indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the specific area the arrow is pointing to is Wernicke's area, located in the temporal lobe.

Explanation - Wernicke's area is responsible for language understanding and the comprehension of speech and language.

For further information related to this area see the 'Temporal Lobe' subsection of the 'Cerebral Cortex' section.

Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Answer 14
Answer 14) Name one symptom that would result from neurodegeneration affecting this part of the brain.
Answer - the image shows an axial section through the midbrain and the arrow is pointing to the substantia nigra. Neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in this region occurs in Parkinson's disease causing the classic symptoms of:
Bradykinesia
Rigidity
Postural instability
Resting tremor

For more information related to this question see the 'Basal Ganglia' section.
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Answer 15) Name the structure indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the cerebral aqueduct.

Explanation - the cerebral aqueduct connects the third and fourth ventricles and contains CSF.

For further information related to this question see the 'Ventricular System' section.
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Answer 16) Identify the lobe of the brain indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the occipital lobe

Explanation - the occipital lobe is the most caudal lobe of the brain. It contains the primary visual cortex which processes visual information from the retina.

For further information related to this question see the 'Occipital Lobe' sub-section of the 'Cerebral Cortex' section.
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Answer 17) Identify the structure indicated by the arrows.
Answer - the arrows are pointing to the internal capsule.

Explanation - the internal capsule

is a group of white matter tracts carrying nerve fibres between the cerebral cortex the and brainstem.

For more information related to this question please view the 'Basal Ganglia' section.
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Answer 18) Describe the symptoms that would result from damage to this structure.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the cerebellum. Damage to the cerebellum would result in motor incoordination.

Explanation - the cerebellum assists in the production of precise and coordinated movements, therefore damage to the cerebellum causes motor incoordination.
One way to remember cerebellar signs is using the acronym DANISH, which stands for - dysdiadochokinesis, ataxia, nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning dysarthria and hypotonia.

For further information related to this question please return to the 'Brainstem' section.
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Answer 19) Name the specialised cells within this structure that are responsible for production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the choroid plexus inside the left lateral ventricle. Ependymal cells are specialised cells within the choroid plexus which produce CSF.

For further information related to this question see the 'Ventricular System' section.
Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Answer 20
Answer 20) Identify the specific part and function of the area of cortex indicated by the arrow.
Answer - the arrow is pointing to the primary motor cortex.

Explanation - the primary motor cortex lies in the frontal lobe immediately rostral to the central sulcus, its function is to execute voluntary motor tasks. Neurons in one hemisphere of the motor cortex control motor activity of the contralateral side of the body.

For further information related to this question see the 'Cerebral Cortex' section.
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Introduction to the Quiz
There are 20 spotter-style questions in the quiz, all are related to the topics covered in the learning resource.

Click the right arrow on your keyboard to view the questions and jot down your answers on a piece of paper. The answers and a short explanation will be given once you have viewed all 20 questions.
Answer 1) State where the arrow is located using the anatomical directions rostral/caudal or dorsal/ventral.
Click the right arrow on your keyboard for Question 17
Cerebellum
Choroid plexus
inside left lateral
ventricle
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If you had difficulty with any of these questions please return to the relevant section of the learning resource to consolidate your learning.

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Resources used for this SDL:
Boeree, C.G. (2009). The Emotional Nervous System". The Limbic System. Retrieved 18th April 2016, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/limbicsystem.html
Drake, R.L., Vogl, A.W. and Mitchell, A.M.W. (2010). Gray’s anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone. p835-847.
FitzGerald M.J.T., Hruener, G. and Mtui, E. (2006). Clinical neuroanatomy and neuroscience. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders. p8-41.
Knierim, J. (2016). Neuroscience online. Chapter 4: basal ganglia. Retrieved 31st May 2016, from http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s3/chapter04.html
Neuroscientifically Challenged. (2015). Know your brain: striatum. Retrieved 26th May 2016, from http://www.neuroscientificallychallenged.com/blog/know-your-brain-striatum
Smith, D and Jones, J. (2016) Lateral ventricles. Retrieved 2nd June 2016, from http://radiopaedia.org/articles/lateral-ventricles
Snell, R.S. (2010). Clinical neuroanatomy. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p474-493.
Waxman, S.G. (2010). Clinical neuroanatomy. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p135-154.

Images used have been taken or adapted from:
Baron, M. (2012). Outline of brain clip art. Retrieved June 7th 2016, from http://www.clker.com/clipart-outline-of-brain.html
Busti, A.J. and Kellogg, D. (2015). Homunculus: somatosensory and somatomotor cortex. Retrieved June 7th 2016 from http://www.ebmconsult.com/articles/homunculus-sensory-motor-cortex
Hubel, D. (2016). Eye, brain and vision. The corpus callosum and stereopsis. Retrieved June 7th 2016, from http://hubel.med.harvard.edu/book/b34.htm
Krebs, C. (2014). Anatomy of the brain. MRI scans. Retrieved June 7th 2016, from http://neuroanatomy.ca/index.html
SiOWfa14 Science in Our World: Certainty and Cont. (2014) Do We Truly Use 10% of Our Brain? Retrieved June 14th 2016 from http://sites.psu.edu/siowfa14/2014/12/03/do-we-truly-use-10-of-our-brain/
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