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Optical Drives

A presentation on the various types of drives and how they function inside a computer

Parika Sikder

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Optical Drives

The first Floppy disk and drive was made at IBM by Alan Shugart in 1967
History of the 8 Inch
In 1978: 5.25" DD (double density) -> capacity: 360 or 800 kB
Compact Discs (CDs) are also inexpensive compared to Digital Video Discs (DVDs).
Optical Drives
Kusal, Sant, Parika, Khushvir
Floppy Drives
Main Topics
Optical Drives
Optical Drives
5.25 Inch
3.5 Inch

DVD VS Blu-ray
Blu-ray has better image quality, better sound quality, and more special features.
All three are made possible by the larger storage capacity of Blu-ray, which is capable of storing 50GB of information on a single Blu-ray Disc, compared with DVDs, which can hold about 8GB.
(CD's DvD's
and Blu-Ray)
5 1/4
3 1/2

What is an optical drive?
Optical drive is a device or component in the computer that reads/writes on optical disks such as CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays. The optical drive is also known as CD-drive, DVD-drive, Blu-ray drive and disc drive. The compactness and capacity of the disc makes it ideal, and better than the floppy. The optical drive has a small Open/Close button that ejects and retracts the drives door. The drive as 2 predrilled holes on both sides, so it can easily be mounted onto a 5.25 inch drive bay. The optical drive has 2 connections, the connection to the motherboard, and the one to the power supply. The connection to the motherboard came in 2 types, in IDE (4 pin power) and Sata (sata power). Most optical drives also have a jumper, on the back which tells the motherboard in which order it should recognize each drive, only when more than one are present.
DVD Sizes:
DVD-5 – holds about 4.37GiB(4,700,000,000 bytes) MOST COMMON DVD MEDIA - Single Sided Single Layered
DVD-9 – holds about 7.95GiB (8,540,000,000 bytes) - Single Sided Dual Layered
DVD-10 – holds about 8.75GiB(9,400,000,000 bytes) - Double Sided Single Layered
DVD-18 – holds about 15.9GiB(17,080,000,000 bytes) - Double Sided Dual Layered
Works similar to a videotape where the information is saved in a specific arrangement of iron oxide particles on the tape itself
DVD uses a “dot pattern” that is burned by a laser
Because the dots are so small, it allows for more capacity
Smallest pits are approx. 0.4 microns (0.001575”) wide on a DVD
stores upto 2 hours of very good quality DVD-Video in various formats such as stereo, Dolby Digital (ebooks and other publications), pictures and approximately 4.7 GB of ordinary data.
Cd’s have less storage capacity (74mins?) and therefore a DVD makes storing larger amounts of data easier
more durable
shorter wavelength of laser beam means DVD players can play CD’s and DVD’s but CD players can’t play DVD’s
error correction is larger so there are less problems
What is a DVD?

and Who invented it?
DVD Stands for Digital Versatile Disc
Invented and developed by 4 companies: Sony, Phillips, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995
8 inch

Originally stored digital audio media.
Comes in several different types, such as CD -ROM, CD-R and CD-RW.
Today it can hold music, games, pics, and documents.

What is a CD Drive?
The CD Drive is the internal exponent of a computer used to scan, read and write on CDs.
Older CD drives ran at slow speeds of 150 kilobyte per second or 1X. Now they can run up to 52X speeds.

CDs can store data longer than Floppies.
Facts About the CD Drive
History of the CD & CD Drive
The First CD Drive was invented by James Russell
Sony and Philips Marketed the first CD Drive in 1982
By 1985 the CD-ROM was invented
In 1990, Philips and Sony created a recordable CD called the CD-R.
In 1987, the VCD was invented to hold video as well as audio
How the CD Drive Reads the CD
What is a Floppy Drive?
To read CDs, the drive shoots a laser beam into it which makes contact with the track on the CD
The laser reflects of the bumps and gets detected by the sensor
Then the data is processed and outputted.
How does the CD Drive writes on the CD-R
There is a Dye present inside a blank CD, which is heated to write data onto (Metalic Surface)
When heated the dye turns opaque and light is not reflected back (encoding is being done)
The light then shines back from the translucent parts, this is where the data is stored
The reflection is what is processed by the CD Drive
What is a CD?
The CD stands for
For right now there hasn't been much word on future optical drives.
ALTHOUGH, it is rumored that Sony is developing a better optical drive than the blue ray.

It is not ready for manufacturing though.
The Future
The track is about 0.5 microns wide
1.6 microns separate on track from the next
Micron=millionth of a meter
The bumps are 0.5 microns wide, 0.83 microns long and 125 nanometres high
In these bumps, data is encoded as 1s and 0s
How does it work?
DVDs use a red laser to read and write data,
Discs digitally encode video and audio information in pits – spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges.
Blue ray uses blue laser to read and write.
a blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometres) than a red laser (650 nanometres).
The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are 0.15 microns long, this is twice as small as the pits on DVD.
CD vs. CD-R Recap
CD Drive Labeled
A floppy disk is a storage medium which has a thin disk and a flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a fabric plastic carrier that removes dust particles.
It was commerically introduced in 1971 by IBM
The Floppy was 8", was only one sided and held 100kB
The capacity was increased in 1973 to 250 kB and included the ablitity to write
Alan left IBm in 1973 and founded Shugart Associates which became the dominate manufacturer of the 8" disk
In 1976 IBM introduced the 500kB double sided single density (DSSD)
In 1977 introduced the 1-12mB double sided double density
How does it work?
Disk drive grabs the floppy by its centre and spins it like a record inside its housing.
Read/write heads: Located on both sides of a diskette; they move together on the same assembly. The same head is used for reading and writing.
Drive motor: a very small motor wihch helps the disk at the centre to spins it 300 or 360 rotations per minute.
Stepper motor: makes a precise number of stepped revolutions to move the read/write head assembly to the proper track position. Stepper motor shaft holds read/write head.
Circuit board: contains all of the electronics to handle the data read from or written to the diskette.
Blu-ray Disk's features
=>With blu-ray you can:
Record HD television without any quality loss
Instantly skip to any spot on the disc
Record on program while watching another on the disc
Automatically search for a empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program
Create playlists
Edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc
Access the Web to download subtitles and other extra feature
The 8 Inch FDD
5.25" FDD & FD
5.25" floppy disk is smaller, faster and less expensive than 8-inch floppy disk, and have more storing capacity
The 5 inch was the smaller version of the 8 inch, no change in the way it worked occurred
5.25 Inch FD and FDD
What is Blu-ray? When was it first introduced?
Blu-ray is the name of a new optical disc developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association. Introduced in 2006.
History of the 5 1/4 Inch

Shugarts Associates introduced the 5.25" in 1976, which had a capacity of 87.5 kB
by 1978 there were more than 10 manufacturers producing them
In 1978 by Apple: 5.25" Apple Disk II (Pre-DOS 3.3) -> capacity: 113.75 kB (256 byte sectors, 13 sectors/track, 35 tracks)
In 1980 by Apple: 5 1⁄4-inch Apple Disk II (DOS 3.3) ->capacity: 140 kB (256 byte sectors, 16 sectors/track, 35 tracks)
In 1982: 5 1⁄4-inch HD ->capacity: 1155 kB
The 3.5" FDD & FD
Types of DVD;
DVDR- Recordable
- first to be compatible with DVD players and is compatible with over 90% of DVD players & DVD-ROMS
DVDRW- Rewriteable
- compatible with about 85% of DVD players and DVD-ROMS
The problem with the 5 inch floppy was that it was to large in size but could have been condensed because more information could’ve been put on smaller surfaces now
Extra Information
The 3.5 was a more new and improved version of the 5 inch
The 3.5 inch took the market by surprise and out sold the 5 inch in 1988
The 3.5 inch offered more storage space! :D
Sony and Apple were the first major companies to sell the 3.5 inch floppy drive/disk
8 Inch FDD
5 1/4 Inch FDD
3 1/2 Inch FDD
How does a DVD drive work?
The DVD drive uses a laser to read the DVD. When the laser shines on a clear area of the disk , the laser bounces off the disk and is picked up by a detector in the DVD drive. When it bounces off an opaque area, it is absorbed and not bounced back. The DVD burner knows which bits are opaque and which are clear based on which reflect signals sent back to it. It sends this information back to the computer
How the DVD Tech. Works
Extra Information
Different types of Layers
How does it work?
Technology still remained the same,
but the overall FDD was condensed
from the 8 inch to 5 1/4 inch, because
the floppy disk shrank
Thank you for your time
Full transcript