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FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION 1

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by

Augusto Casablanca

on 1 September 2017

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Transcript of FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION 1

Unit 1: Vowel Overview
FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION 1
Unit 2: Sleep and Slip
Unit 3: Wait, Wet, and Wit
Unit 4: Man and Men
Unit 5: Lock and Luck
*
aw
kward
* bl
o
ck
* l
o
ck
* cl
o
ck
* r
a
w
* st
a
rt
* g
ua
rd
* kn
ow
ledge
* j
o
b
* p
o
pular
* bl
oo
d
* b
u
s
* zebr
a
* penc
i
l
* c
ou
ntry
* carr
o
t
* c
o
me
* h
u
sband
* l
o
ve
* en
ou
gh
(schwa)
Your mouth is open.
Your mouth is nearly closed.
* Words that have
:
- d
o
ne
- l
o
ve
- m
o
nkey
- wh
a
t
- d
oe
s
- h
o
ney
- l
u
nch
-
o
ther
- n
o
thing
- bl
oo
d
- c
ou
ple
- fl
oo
d
- t
ou
ch
- d
u
ck
-
o
nce
- y
ou
ng
- c
ou
sin
Stressed
and
Unstressed
Vowel Sounds
What are these?
HAMBURGER
PENCIL
VANILLA
HAM - BUR - GER
PEN - CIL
VA - NI- LLA
HAM
- BUR - GER
HAM
-
BUR
-
GER
PEN
-
CIL
PEN
- CIL
VA -
NI
- LLA
VA
-
NI
-
LLA
Help Homer find the Schwa's in these words with unstressed vowel sounds:
* ketchup
* chicken
* soda
* orange
* potato
* bandage
* vitamin
* lettuce
* pizza
* f
ea
st
* th
e
se
* sh
ee
p
* ch
ea
p
* b
ea
t
* sl
ee
p
* f
ee
t
* k
ey
s
*
ea
t
* st
ea
l
* f
i
st
* th
i
s
* sh
i
p
* ch
i
p
* b
i
t
* sl
i
p
* f
i
t
* k
i
ss
*
i
t
* st
i
ll
Your lips are spread.
Your lips aren't spread.
Responses:
a. That's too bad. It's a terrible neighborhood.
b. That's too bad. He seemed so happy at that job.
a. I've heard they make good pets.
b. I thought he was afraid of the water.
a. With water?
b. It's very smooth.
a. Really? He deserved to get the most!
b. Is my name on it?
* The computer chip was pretty cheap.
* Do your feet fit in those shoes? They look a bit small for you.
* This outfit goes perfect with these glasses.
* p
ai
n
* t
a
ste
*
ei
ght
* ob
ey
* d
a
te
* br
a
ve
* f
a
me
* gr
ai
n
* gr
ea
t
* p
a
per
Spread your lips
Relax your tongue, lips, and cheeks.
* fr
ie
nd
* b
e
st
* d
ea
d
* tr
e
nd
* w
e
t
*
a
ny
* p
e
n
* br
ea
kfast
* s
ai
d
* br
e
vity
Alternating Vowels:
From
to
meet
feed
read
met
fed
read
Unit 6: Head, Had, Hut, and Hot
* b
a
d
*
au
nt
* ex
a
m
* c
a
t
* s
a
ndwich
* bl
a
ck
* l
au
gh
* j
a
cket
* p
a
st
* bl
a
nd
The tip of your tongue is behind your lower teeth
* fr
ie
nd
* b
e
st
* d
ea
d
* tr
e
nd
* w
e
t
*
a
ny
* p
e
n
* br
ea
kfast
* s
ai
d
* br
e
vity
Relax your tongue, lips, and cheeks.
* b
a
d
* b
a
ck
*
a
xe
* c
a
n
* p
a
t
* b
e
d
* b
e
ck
*
e
x
* K
e
n
* p
e
t
* f
a
r
* b
a
r
* g
ua
rd
* c
a
r
* c
a
rd
* f
u
r
* b
u
rr
* g
i
rd
* c
u
r
* c
u
rd
* carve
* curve
* star
* stir
* dart
* dirt
* heart
* hurt
* barn
* burn
* and
* end
* flash
* flesh
* had
* head
* pan
* pen
* sax
* sex
Help Scooby-Doo classify these minimal pairs under the right phonetic symbols:
* Choose some of your favorite minimal pairs and create a nice short story with them.
Last night, my
dad

had
a terrible accident.
I accidentally hit his
head
with a baseball
bat
.
I
bet
he will recover soon. Thank God he's not
dead
!
BE CREATIVE!
CUT
COT
BAG
BUG
POPPY
PUPPY
CUP
CAP
Now, h
e
r b
i
tter b
a
tter was b
e
tter.
B
e
tty B
o
tter b
ou
ght a b
i
t of b
u
tter.
The b
u
tter B
e
tty B
o
tter b
ou
ght was a b
i
t b
i
tter,

a
nd m
a
de h
e
r b
a
tter b
i
tter.
B
u
t a b
i
t of b
e
tter b
u
tter m
a
kes h
e
r b
a
tter b
e
tter.
So B
e
tty B
o
tter b
ou
ght a b
i
t of b
e
tter b
u
tter,
b
e
tter th
a
n h
e
r b
i
tter b
u
tter.
Unit 7: Vowels followed by /r/
h
er
b
ir
d
h
ur
t

or
st
or
e
w
ar
n

h
ar
d
st
ar
t
g
uar
d

h
ear
d
w
or
k
j
our
ney

d
oor
f
our
w
ar

f
ar
h
ear
t
c
a
r

* Same or different?
D
D
D
D
S
S
S
S
S
Let's see more vowel sounds + /r/
´
r
l /
/
/r/ + /l/ =
P
EARL
W
ORL
D
G
IRL
´
r
l /
/ p
´
r
l /
/ g
´
r
ld /
/ w
Unit 8: Boat, Bought, and Pot
* b
oa
t
* j
o
ke
* f
o
cus
*
o
pen
* gr
ow
* r
oa
d
* kn
ow
* t
oe
* alth
ou
gh
* s
ew
* p
au
se
* l
o
ss
* f
au
lt
* c
a
ll
* str
o
ng
* d
aw
n
* th
ou
ght
* b
ou
ght
* br
oa
d
* l
aw
*
aw
kward
* bl
o
ck
* p
o
t
* cl
o
ck
* r
a
w
* st
a
rt
* g
ua
rd
* kn
ow
ledge
* j
o
b
* p
o
pular
BALL
BOWL
FALL
FOAL
TO SOCK
TO SOAK
COLD
CALLED
ALTERNATING or SAME?
S
S
S
S
A
A
A
A
A
Unit 9: Cool, Could, and Cute
l
oo
k
f
u
ll
w
ou
ld
f
oo
t
b
us
h
c
oo
k
g
oo
d
b
u
ll
t
oo
k
s
u
gar
L
u
ke
ch
oo
se
f
oo
l
fl
u
tr
ue
p
oo
l
m
oo
n
fr
ui
t
c
oo
dr
ew
h
u
man
rev
iew
h
u
mid
p
u
nitive
c
u
te
c
u
cumber
f
u
ture
n
u
merous
introd
u
ce
n
ew
s
Is it tr
ue
L
u
ke plays the fl
u
te?
Y
ou
sh
ou
ldn't p
u
t s
u
gar in your s
ou
p.
L
oo
k! The w
o
lf howls at the m
oo
n.
Did y
ou
ch
oo
se the g
oo
d b
oo
ts, the j
ew
elry or the bl
ue
s
ui
t?
T
o
open the n
ew
door, just p
u
sh or p
u
ll.
Wh
o
c
ou
ld buy the t
wo
sh
oe
s?
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
Unit 10: Wide, House, and Boy
* k
i
nd
* sp
y
* d
ye
* d
ie
*
eye
* h
ei
ght
* h
i
gh
* b
uy
*
ai
sle
*
ei
ther
* v
ow
* r
ou
nd
* c
ou
nt
* b
ou
nd
* cr
ow
d
* n
ow
* br
ow
n
* b
ou
gh
* dr
ou
ght
* h
ou
se
* b
oy
* k
oi
fish
* v
oi
ce
* t
oy
* l
oy
alty
* sp
oi
l
* n
oi
se
*
oi
l
* empl
oy
* g
oi
ng
Unit 11: Consonant Overview
Unit 12: Beginning and Final Consonants
What is
ASPIRATION
?
Aspiration
is a
strong puff of air
released from the mouth when we pronounce words with these consonant sounds
at the beginning
or when
they are in the stressed syllable
:
* paint
* pull
* pen
* cat
* kid
* carrot
* attack
* tan
* tend
* Is there
ASPIRATION
in the following words with /p/, /k/ and /t/?
1.
c
ut
2. a
pp
le
3. a
p
art
4. ea
t
er
5. a
tt
ic
6. a
tt
ack
7. im
p
ort
8. de
c
ay
9. de
c
adent
10. a
cc
ount
11.
c
ollide
12.
p
an
Final Consonant
+
Vowel
Final Consonant
+
Different Consonant
Final Consonant
+
Same (or similar) Consonant
Wha
t

a
goo
d

i
dea!

(
(
Read the following phrases clearly:
* Re
d a
pple
* Loo
k it u
p
* No
t A
nne
* Wha
t is i
t?
* Ta
ke it o
ut
* Coo
k it a
ll
* Pu
t a s
andwi
ch i
n
* Han
g on a m
inute
Mole Station
Molestation
keep it short
* raise zombies
* peace sign
* black cat
* pig cartoon
* safe vacation
* big guy
/z/ /z/
/s/ /s/
/k/ /k/
/g/ /g/
/g/

/k/
/f/

/v/
(
(
(
(
(
(
Unit 13: -ed Endings; and Flapped /t/ and /d/
Past Tense -ed Ending
*The pronunciation of these regular verbs depends on
the last sound
of the
base form
of the verb.
Example:
* wa
sh
* liste
n
* ha
te
* wash
ed
* listen
ed
* hat
ed
RULE
RULE
RULE
When the BASE FORM of the verb ends in:
pronounce the ending:
* Some verbs are:
hat
ed
, wait
ed
, add
ed
, end
ed
, admitt
ed
, fitt
ed
, knitt
ed
, accept
ed
, decid
ed
, need
ed
, invit
ed
, etc.
When the BASE FORM of the verb ends in:
pronounce the ending:
* Some verbs are:
When the BASE FORM of the verb ends in:
pronounce the ending:
* Some verbs are:
develop
ed
, ask
ed
, froth
ed
, cough
ed
, cross
ed
, wash
ed
, watch
ed
, etc
robb
ed
, dragg
ed
, breath
ed
, believ
ed
, us
ed
, sabotag
ed
, judg
ed
, film
ed
, frighten
ed
, wingg
ed
, remember
ed
, spell
ed
, etc.
These rules also work with -ed adjectives
Exception
*In some adjectives
-ed
is pronounced as
a syllable
even though the base word
doesn't end in /t/ or /d/
. Many of these base words end in
/k/ or /g/
:
a two-legg
ed
monster
nak
ed
people
* Flapped /t/ and /d/:
Read the following words aloud:
wa
t
er
ri
d
er
da
t
a
le
tt
er
a
dd
ing
ma
tt
er
mi
dd
le
nee
d
le
lea
d
er
ti
d
y
All /t/ and /d/ sound like a voiced sound called "flap" or "Fast D" The symbol for the flap is:
* Flaps and Homophones:
Many times, the flap creates homophones. In American English, these words are pronounced the same because of the flap:
1. When I must choose between coffee and tea, I prefer the
latter
.
2. John used the
ladder
to climb onto the roof.
1. I was
putting
one foot in front of the other, like a machine.
2. Bread
pudding
with raisins and sauce is delicious.
1. May I have a
liter
of milk, please?
2. The
leader
of the tour took them into the next room.
Unit 14: TH sounds
TH SOUNDS
Voiced
TH Sound
Voiceless
TH Sound
No vibration in your throat.
Vibration in your throat.
Voiceless
TH Sound
No vibration in your throat.
* streng
th
* leng
th
*
th
anks
* warm
th
*
Th
ursday
* plin
th
* bro
th
er
* mo
th
er
* fa
th
er
* ei
th
er
* fea
th
er
*
th
is
*
th
ese
*
th
at
*
th
ose
* toge
th
er
Voiced
TH Sound
Vibration in your throat.
Read the following sentences aloud:
I
th
ought of
th
inking of
th
anking you.

Th
e
th
irty
th
ousand
th
ieves
th
ought
th
ey
th
rilled
th
e
th
rone
th
roughout
Th
ursday.

Th
ey
th
rew
th
ree
th
ick
th
ings.

Not
th
ese
th
ings here, but
th
ose
th
ings
th
ere.
*
th
eme
*
th
ree
*
th
reat
* dea
th
* some
th
ing
* bir
th
*
th
en
*
th
em
* soo
th
e
* wi
th
*
th
an
EXCEPTIONS!
*
Th
ailand (Country)
*
Th
ai (Nationality)
*
Th
ames (River)
* mon
th
s (plural)
TH sounds like
/t/
Unit 15: pack, back, fan, van, and west
/p/
/b/
(voiceless)
(voiced)
* ha
pp
y
*
p
ace
*
p
ack
* a
pp
le
* ta
p
*
b
a
b
y
* ho
bb
y
*
b
ean
*
b
iology
* ro
b
Press your lips together.
The top teeth gently touch the lower lip.
/f/
/v/
(voiceless)
(voiced)
* e
ff
ect
*
f
avor
* a
f
ter
*
f
riend
* tele
ph
one
*
v
an
* lo
ve
*
v
ideo
* uni
v
erse
*
v
ersion
Start with your lips rounded, then unround.
/w/
*
w
ater
*
wh
ere
*
w
ine
*
o
ne
*
w
ell
* req
u
est
P
eter
b
atted
b
etter than
P
at
p
oured
b
utter, so
P
eter told
P
at to
b
uy
p
ie
p
ans
b
efore
P
eter
b
ought
b
utter
p
lates.
F
amous
V
incent, the
v
ery
v
i
v
acious
v
ampire,
v
isited his
f
avorite
f
riend,
F
rancis, the
v
egetarian
v
eterinarian
v
acationing in
V
alentine
V
alley,
f
ull o
f
ele
ph
ants.
W
hile
w
e
w
ere
w
alking,
w
e
w
ere
w
ashing
w
ashers
w
ash
W
ashington's
w
indows
w
ith
w
arm
w
ashing
w
ater.
Full transcript