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Chapter 10: An Age of Democracy and Progress
Transcript of Chapter 10: An Age of Democracy and Progress
Civil War Tests Democracy
Texas Joins the United States
War With Mexico
North and South
Civil War Beaks Out
Abolition of Slavery
belief the U.S. had the right and duty to rule all of North America. It was used to justify kicking Indians
off their land.
Indian Removal Act- forced Natives to leave their home
Led to Trail of Tears- 800 mile walk to Oklahoma
-Mexico owned territory west of Louisiana Purchase and allowed Americans to move in
Texans revolted against Mexican rule and won independence
-U.S. annexed Texas- Mexico viewed this as an act of war
-War lasted from 1846 to 1848
Mexico finally surrendered
Ceded territory including California and South West
-The north had a diverse economy, while the south relied on a few cash crops through slave labor
The differing of economic ideas led to controversy over slavery
-The slave debate led to the debate over state rights
-In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected president
The southern states began to secede because Lincoln promised to abolish slavery
-April 12, 1861, confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter
-Lincoln then ordered the army to bring the rebel states back into the union
Because the north had better transportation, a larger population, and more factories they beat the south, which had superior leadership.
-1863, Lincoln issued the
Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all the slaves in the Confederate states
- Because this showed that the war was about slavery, European countries did not send money and supplies to the south
- After the war the US passed the
14th and 15th amendments extended the rights of citizenship and allowed former slaves to vote
- From 1865 to 1877,
Union troops occupied the south
- After the troops left southerners limited the rights of African Americans
This encouraged segregation in the south
-African Americans also faced trouble in the North
-South was destroyed
- In the 1870s, immigrants came at a rate of nearly 2,000 a day
- By 1914 over 20 million people had moved to the U.S
- In 1862 the US authorized money to build a transcontinental railroad
The railroad was built mostly by immigrants
and was finished in 1869
- By 1900 nearly 200,000 miles of track crossed the nation which
helped the economy
Democratic Reform and Activism
War and Expansion in the United States
Social Sciences Explore Behavior
An Age of Democracy and Progress
Scientific theories in the 1800s prompted new studies in modern social science
Psychology, the study of the human mind and behavior
, challenged the ideas of the Enlightenment
Physiologists Ivan Pavlov developed the idea of unconscious acts
Sigmund Freud created therapy called psychoanalysis
Rise of Mass Culture
In 1900, different forms of entertainment began to appeal to all masses
Popularity of trips to local music halls increases
Coal and steam drove machines of industry
Gasoline powered the internal combustion engine, which made the automobile possible
Another new energy was electricity
- two bicycle mechanics from Daytona, Ohio
On December 17, 1903 they flew a gasoline powered flying machine at Kitty Hawk, NC
The longest flight only lasted 59 seconds, but it began the aircraft industry
Inventions: Making Life Easier
developed the germ theory of disease
While examining the fermentation process of alcohol he observed bacteria
He learned that heat killed bacteria
This lead to the process of pasteurization to kill germs in liquids such as milk
New Ideas in Science
By early 1900s, filmmakers begin producing the first feature films
Spectator sports such as football and baseball in the United States and soccer in Europe gain popularity
Reform in Great Britain
Britain becomes a constitutional monarchy in 1688, with a Parliament consisting of two houses:
House of Lords: positions inherited or appointed
House of Commons: seats elected through voting
Reform Bill of 1832
Before the Reform Bill of 1832 only 5% of the population could vote. This included men who owned large amounts of land.
The wealthy middle class led protests to extend suffrage.
The French Revolution frightened parliament into passing the Reform Bill of 1832.
Law eased property requirements so that wealthy middle class men could vote
Gave new industrial cities more representation
Reform Bill only slightly increased the percentage eligible to vote
Non-represented groups began to press parliament for more rights - known as the
Demanded Parliament sign The People's Charter of 1838:
suffrage for all men, annual Parliamentary elections, secret ballot, and pay for members of Parliament
Parliament rejects the demands, though responded years later
By 1884 most men in Britain had gained suffrage
Queen of British Empire from 1837-1901
brought Britain to the height of its wealth and power
was forced to accept a less powerful role for the monarchy when power was transfered to Parliament
in the 1800's political power shifted almost completly to the prime minister and his cabinet
Poverty inVictorian Society
Queen Victoria did little to improve the lives of London's poor, who were living in extreme poverty
Women Gain the Right to Vote
Organization and Resistance
In the 1800s women in Britain and the US began to organize reform societies and protest unfair laws and customs.
In 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded Women's Social and Political Union: a militant organization for women's rights.
The Dreyfus Affair
The Third Republic was threatened by groups who wanted a military rule
These conflicts along with anti-Semitism lead to the Dreyfus Affair
Capt. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French Army, was falsely accused of selling military secrets to Germany and was given life in prison
public opinion divided
Emile Zola publishes 'J'accuse!', denouncing the army for covering up the scandal
eventually Dreyfus was declared innocent
The Rise in Zionism
The Dreyfus case showed the strength of anti-Semitism in France.
Because of persecution in Europe thousands of Jews fled.
They begin to work for a homeland in Palestine, effort known as
The Victorian Age
Democracy in France
Suffragette: a women seeking the right to vote through organized protest
The suffrage movement gained attention
between 1880-1914, but women did not
gain the right to vote in Great Britain and
the US until after WWI.
The need for mass production of goods during the Civil War sped up industrialization.
By 1914, the US was a leading industrial power.
Nineteenth Century Progress
Patented more than 1000
light bulb and the phonograph
Most important invention”
was the idea of a
research laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
in his spare time
sent the first radio wave across the Atlantic
decided to make cars that were affordable for most people
used standardized interchangeable parts and the assembly line to make car manufacturing cheaper and more efficient
A Model T Ford could be assembled in less than two hours and it originally sold for $850 but it eventually dropped to $300
Wilbur and Orville Wright
flew the first gas
machine at Kitty
The Third Republic
Between 1871-1914 France changed governments almost yearly.
In 1875 the National Assembly voted to set up a republic.
The Third Republic lasted over 60 years.
New Ideas in Medicine
thought germs might explain why patients died in surgery of infections
insisted on keeping a clean surgical ward
85% of his patients survived
• challenged the idea of special creation
developed a theory that all forms of life evolved from earlier living forms that had existed millions of years ago
Wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
o Natural Selection- populations tend to grow faster than the food supply and so they must compete for food. The members of a species that survive are best adapted to their environment. The surviving members produce offspring that share their advantages, and species may change as a result and new species may evolve.
• This theory through natural selection came to be called the theory of evolution
discovered two of the missing elements radium and polonium
gave this energy the name radioactivity
shared the Nobel Prize with her husband for physics for their work on radioactivity
1911 won it again for chemistry for discovering radium and polonium
argued that free economic competition was natural selection in action
Social Darwinism provided rationalization for imperialism and colonialism