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creative resistance

Created for 12th grade trimester history elective
by

Michael-Ann Cerniglia

on 21 September 2016

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Transcript of creative resistance

creative resistance

gender
environment
politics
race
gangam gaza style
Musical Background
Analysis

by Alex Underwood
30 Apr 2012
ATH 480 Departmental Honors Independent Study with Dr. Mark Allen Peterson
http://prezi.com/kahxpwxhrk5z/underground-music-and-the-tunisian-revolution/
However, as music is integrated and accepted into society, those unsatisfied by the dominant structures begin to seek new means of resistance, leading to new hybrids of music on the fringes of classification
A traditional ma'luf ensemble
Cheb Khaled's famous 1992 hit "Didi"
Soultana, a Muslim hip-hop artist from Morocco
A retrospective analysis of Tunisian underground music over the last 60 years
Ma'luf has origins as regional street music, becoming widely embraced as a national musical heritage following the Independence of 1956.
It incorporates French, Spanish, Arab, and local influences.
What started out as street music quickly became formalized in the Rashidiyya school with the support of state sponsorship.
Young Tunisians began to seek out other music once ma'luf became tied to the establishment.
Ma'luf
Rai
Hip-hop
Originating in Algeria, rai has roots in Andalusi classical music, Melhun (sung Bedouin poetry), Egyptian pop music, and American swing music.
The hardships of French occupation drew many to this innovative, expressive fusion of music.
Rai broke with traditional trends, using violins, accordions, trumpets, and arranged songs rather than improvising.
Following independence however, rai music was heavily suppressed.
Seen as a remnant of colonialism, rai music was not allowed on the state controlled radio.
Through the use of cassettes, artistes could distribute their music "underground," gathering a grass-roots following.
Artists often sang of poverty, alienation, and other social issues.
Most performers and listeners were young adults in their teens-early 20s.
Like rai, hip-hop often addresses social issues, but tends to be much more political in its message.
As radical Islamists rose to prominence in the aftermath of 9/11, tension and violence grew in already tumultuous regions.
Hip-hop provided a medium for youth to express their frustration with these violent extremists while embracing their own Arab, often Muslim identity.
Yet despite these positive aspects, hip-hop in Tunsia was banned from government-approved radio and television playlists, while recording studios and public performance permits were virtually inaccessible
Artists took other means to produce and spread their music, recording in their homes and posting music on the internet
El Général, a Tunisian rapper who used his music to speak out against an allegedly corrupt regime in early 2011
Victor Turner argued that such hybrids can be genuinely dangerous because they have transformative, or in this case, revolutionary, potential.
With respect to Turner, hybrid music has been strongly associated with revolutionary political change in the cases of ma'luf during the 1956 Independence and hip-hop during the 2011 Arab Spring Revolution.
So, how do we think about this Anthropologically?
Extrapolating from Douglas and Turner, there are 2 ways for a culture to deal with hybridity
Mary Douglas proposed that when societies organize the world into cultural categories, they like to maintain these categories as “pure.”
In Tunisia, music has continually broken previously established cultural categories by combining new, outside influences with previous traditions to create "hybrid" genres such as ma'luf, rai, and Arab hip-hop.
They can forbid it, which ultimately failed in the case of rai and hip-hop, as artists used word of mouth, cassettes, and the internet to spread their own underground music.
Or they can incorporate it into the existing system, weakening its transformative potential, which is ultimately what happened with ma'luf and rai and is currently happening to hip-hop.
Government acceptance of genre
Emergence of new hybrid genre
Marginalized Tunisians seek foreign music
And the cycle repeats itself
To learn more about this material and my project, continue on to the related video and blog below:
https://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/
http://moroccoworldnews.com/2011/06/1642/hip-hop-the-spearheading-music-of-arab-spring/
http://www.tunisia-live.net/2012/03/12/tunisian-maluf-when-mystic-poetry-meets-andalusian-music/
http://www.afropop.org/multi/interview/ID/80
http://www.nationalanthems.info/tn-87.htm
http://funkypharaoh.com/post/14630954750/a-closer-look-at-rai-music-and-a-tribute-to-khaled-the
http://www.viiphoto.com/detail-story3.php?news_id=578
For more on Ma'luf, check out http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/maluf-an-introduction/
For more on rai, check out: http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/rai-music-2/
For more on the emergence of hip-hop, check out: http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/the-emergence-of-hip-hop/
For more on El Général and the Arab Spring, check out these two posts: http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/el-general-and-the-arab-spring-2/

http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/tunisian-underground-music-subverting-the-system/
Cheb Khaled on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheb_Khaled
English translation: http://revolutionaryarabraptheindex.blogspot.com/2012/02/soultana-sawt-nssa-voice-of-women.html
What does Tunisia do with this hybrid music?
References:
Al-Deen, H. N. "The Evolution of Rai Music." Journal of Black Studies 35.5 (2005): 597-611. JSTOR. Web.

Anderson, Nate, and Ars Technica. "Tweeting Tyrants Out of Tunisia: Global Internet at Its Best." Wired 14 Jan. 2011. Wired.com. Web. 20 June 2011. <http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/01/tunisia/2/>.

Davis, Ruth Frances. Malūf: Reflections on the Arab Andalusian Music of Tunisia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2004. Print.

Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

Ghosh, Bobby. "Rage, Rap and Revolution: Inside the Arab Youth Quake." Time Magazine 7 Feb. 2011. Time.com. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.

Rainbow. "The Sounds of the Arab Spring." Article-27. 19 Feb. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. <http://article-27.com/index.php/2012/02/sounds-of-the-arab-spring/>.

Sidky, Homayun. Perspectives on Culture: A Critical Introduction to Theory in Cultural Anthropology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Turner, Victor. 1969. The Ritual Process: Structure and Antistructure. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Wright, Robin B. Rock the Casbah: Rage and Rebellion across the Islamic World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011. Print.

Ulysses. “Hip-Hop Arab Youth and the Arab Awakening.” Corriere della Sera. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. < http://lettura.corriere.it/hip-hop-arab-youth-and-the-arab-awakening/>.
Mary Douglas, an influential anthropologist who developed symbolism and structuralist approaches. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Douglas
Victor Turner, colleague of Douglas, focused on rituals and symbols within a culture
http://soa212.wordpress.com/2010/09/12/victor-turner/
After posting "Rais Lebled" and the subsequent "Tunisia Our Country" to his Facebook and Youtube pages, El Général struck a chord with suppressed Tunisian citizens.
The government, unhappy with his music and its message, promptly blocked his websites and arrested him for his comments against the President.
Their efforts proved ineffective, however, as the Tunisian public succeeded in ousting President Ben Ali, establishing a new government and permitting hip-hop artists such as El Général to distribute music.
As you progress, follow along with the blog: http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/
For more on this analysis, check out:
http://tunisianmusic.wordpress.com/2012/04/30/conclusions-an-anthropological-analysis/
When cultural distinctions become mixed, as when hybrid forms of music emerge, dominant social forces tend to see these hybrids as “polluting” and dangerous.
Underground Music and the Tunisian Revolution
resources
Cultures of Resistance
http://www.culturesofresistance.org/
Solange's sapeurs-inspired video
http://www.pri.org/stories/2013-11-16/google-ad-has-moved-people-tears-across-indian-and-pakistan

economics
Republican Trey Radel
re-interprets Public Enemy
"Fight the Enemy" to be
about Obama
ANPO Art x War Trailer
Amandla!
Trailer
A Revolution
in Four-Part Harmony
Cairo 678 Film
general
JR
My wish to turn art world
inside out
To learn more about Moss Graffiti:
http://livingartforms.wix.com/messages-in-moss
Wasteland Trailer
Pussy Riot Punk Prayer
Ai Wei Wei
Never Sorry
Trailer
Exit Through the Gift Shop
Trailer
Banksy Graffiti Artist
anti-captilist messages as well as anti-war and social, political messages
“I love the way capitalism finds a place—even for its enemies."
-Banksy to
The New Yorker
Carlos Andrés Gómez's
Slam Poetry "Never Again"
"Destroy Capitalism" by Banksy, which Walmart sold on canvas
"Can't Beat the Feeling"
by Banksy
(also a 1989 coca-cola slogan)

Reverse Graffiti Artist Moose
Reverse Graffiti campaign on homelessness by NGO Crisis in Great Britain
Reverse Graffiti in San Franscico's
Broadway Tunnel by Moose
click here for more:
http://www.inspirationgreen.com/reverse-graffiti.html

http://www.cityofasylumpittsburgh.org/
Musical Responses to Margaret Thatcher
by Michael-Ann Cerniglia
Under what economic circumstances are people motivated to action?
How are opinions of a region’s economic system reflected in its art and technology?
In what ways can art communicate a culture’s economic system?
How do individuals and groups select their form of artistic expression?
How does the addition of art and technology to the story of economics change the historic and current perspective?
What effect have cultural responses to economics had at local and global levels?
Under what political circumstances are people motivated to action?
How are opinions of a region’s political system reflected in its art and technology?
In what ways can art communicate a culture’s political system?
How do individuals and groups select their form of artistic expression?
How does the addition of art and technology to the story of politics change the historic and current perspective?
What effect have cultural responses to politics had at local and global levels?
Under what circumstances does race motivate people to action?
How are opinions of race reflected in a region’s art and technology?
How is race reflected in art?
How do individuals and groups select their form of artistic expression?
How does the addition of art and technology to the story of race change the historic and current perspective?
What effect have cultural responses to race had at local and global levels?
Under what circumstances does gender motivate people to action?
How are opinions of gender reflected in a region’s art and technology?
How is gender reflected in art?
How do individuals and groups select their form of artistic expression?
How does the addition of art and technology to the story of gender change the historic and current perspective?
What effect have cultural responses to gender had at local and global levels?
Under what circumstances does environment motivate people to action?
How are opinions of race reflected in a region’s art and technology?
How is the environment reflected in art?
How do individuals and groups select their form of artistic expression?
How does the addition of art and technology to the story of the environment change the historic and current perspective?
What effect have cultural responses to the environment had at local and global levels?
No Woman No Drive
Wadjda
trailer
first film directed by Saudi Woman
Haifaa al Mansour
http://www.theguardian.com/arts/pictures/0,8542,1543331,00.html
Banksy & Israeli Separation Barrier with West Bank
Billy Elliot's
"London Calling" Scene by the Clash
Pink Floyd's 1983
"The Fletcher Memorial Home"
"Maggie Maggie Maggie (Out Out Out)" by the Larks
"Stand down Margaret" 1980 by The English Beat
"Biko"
by Peter Gabriel
#persiansquare
sapeurs
http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2013/05/07/181704510/the-surprising-sartorial-culture-of-congolese-sapeurs
Kid Rock's "Amen"
says, "stop living off handouts and favors"
The Silhouettes "Get a job" from 1958 was posted as one of Converapedia's "Greatest Conservative Songs"
"Okie from Muskogee" by Merle Haggard a response to anti-Vietnam protests
"Stop Global Whining"
by The Right Brothers
"Capitalism" by US band Oingo Boingo in 1983
Lead singer and writer Danny Elfman is said to have called it "serious satire." What do you think?
MIT Visualizing Cultures
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/index.html
Andy Carvin on reporting with Twitter
Anonymous Occupation Alliance
Clay Shirky:
How Social Media Can Make History
http://tech.firstpost.com/news-analysis/crowdsourcing-tools-to-combat-violence-against-women-63677.html
Tracking Women's violence in Egypt
Take back the Tech!
http://www.sampsoniaway.org/exile-hangouts/
Archive of exile hangout discussions
City of Asylum Pittsburgh
CROWDSOURCING TO COMBAT VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
Van Gogh's "Submission"
Prisoner's 39 Panel Mural
http://prisonphotography.org/2014/03/05/prisoners-39-panel-allegorical-mural-made-from-bedsheets-hair-gel-and-stacks-of-newspapers/
Manal al Sharif
Ayaan Hirsi Ali, author of "Submission"
Candy Chang:
Before I die...
Thelma Golden:
How art gives shape to cultural change
Majora Carter: 3 Stories of Eco-enreprenuership
Beijing artist Liang Kegang
Chen Guangbiao
billionaire/entrepreneur
$860 jar
$.80 per can
NPR 5/1/2014 'Illmatic': The Making of a Classic
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/arrig002/politicsandpopculture/2008/04/popular_culture_as_oppositiona.html
Rap as Resistance
Something from Nothing: The Art of Rap

http://digitalcommons.auctr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2126&context=dissertations
Rhythm and Blues Protest
Music (Dissertation)
James Brown "Im Black and I'm Proud"
Sam Cooke: A Change is Gonna Come
Besse Griffin: Old Ship of Zion
Art of Conflict: Murals of Northern Ireland
Slingshot Hip Hop Trailer
Related is the story of Lego Mindstorms at:
http://fora.tv/2008/04/08/MITs_Eric_von_Hippel_Open_Innovation
Civic Hacking
Buddhist Monks protest Tibet on MCA Day
http://blog.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2014/06/26/the_ukraine_crisis_as_told_through_hip_hop?utm_content=buffer9af2f&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer
Ukrainian Hip Hop
The Drinkable Book

Elif Shafak:
The Politics of Fiction
2014 Hong Kong Protesters sing the Cantonese version of "Do you Hear the People Sing?" from Les Miserables
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/15/opinion/hong-kongs-pop-culture-of-protest.html?emc=eta1&_r=0
Naomi Kizhner's Jewelry harvests energy from veins
http://www.iflscience.com/technology/jewelry-harvests-energy-wearers
a discussion piece “about how far will we go to in order to ‘feed’ our addiction in the world of declining resources.”
http://www.clickondetroit.com/Hip-Hop-Republican/20222028
Peter Ginz
Defiant Requiem
http://www.wqxr.org/#!/story/279591-defiant-requiem-reprises-holcaust-era-performance-verdi/
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/art/artists-release-new-songs-inspired-events-ferguson/
Clint Smith: How to Raise a Black Son in America
http://wesa.fm/post/rapper-explores-economic-divide-within-pittsburghs-revitalization
Khari Mosley
"A Tale of Two Cities"
Full transcript