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Presentacion para doblaje clase de Traducción Audiovisual. Mariana/Gaby

Gabriela Avendano

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Doblaje

Consiste en la traducción y ajuste de un guión de un texto audiovisual. para posteriormente interpretar esta traducción por parte de los actores.

Todo esto bajo dirección del director de doblaje y consejos del asesor lingüístico. Doblaje (Dubbing) Dubbing / subbing countries Its origins are in the United States, but it has been used mainly in Europe,
where it first appeared in 1936 Historia del doblaje. 1. La adquisición del texto audiovisual.

2. El estudio de doblaje (fase de producción).
Se seleccionan personas a cargo. Registro,
verificación de la lista de dialógos,producir
copia de trabajo con CTR, spotting.

3. El encargo de traducción: la labor del traductor.
Papel del traductor, remuneración inferior,
saber un idioma y saber hacer una traducción)

4. La fase de ajuste o adaptación.
sincronización y adaptación, 3 tipos de ajuste
(ajuste labial(PS), ajuste de movimientos corporales (KS), ajuste temporal a la duracion de enunciados (ISOC)

5. La dramatización o doblaje de voces. Documentation strategies: develop to compensate the lack of feature.

Comprehension strategies: to understand the ST.

Specific strategies to rethink and rewrite the ST.
According to acceptability or adequacy,prioritizing relevant factors.

Mnemonic strategies. in order not to repeat certain procedures. Strategies Dialogue writer, sync assitant or translator. Types of synchronization Kautský claims that first attempts at dubbing date back to the 1930s. At the beginning, it was usually one person who dubbed all the characters
of a film. “Na stopě”, which was translated, spoken, edited and mixed by one person. This was also the first film ever dubbed in Czechoslovakia (1933). The evolution of dubbing was strongly contributed to by television. In the early days of TV dubbing,only a few actors were involved. They used sub. The next evolution stage of dubbing was “live dubbing”. It was only in 1964 when loop dubbing started. Its quality increased progressively and Czech dubbing soon became one of the best in Europe. The possibility of watching films on video and new TV channels in the 1990s caused a sudden rise in the demand for dubbing. A new method appeared in the 1990s. It was the unilinear dubbing. 1) DC are those that use lip-synchronization both at cinema and television.
Germany (together with Austria),
Only in such countries the market is large enough so that the expensive production of dubbing can be profitable. Spain can be here considered as an exception, Luyken claims, since the main reason why dubbing started to be used in this country was a big proportion of illiterate population. 2) Subtitling countries are those which subtitle everything, for the cinema or television. Small Western European countries, the Netherlands, Portugal or Scandinavian
The only case in which subtitling countries use dubbing are films and TV programmes for children who are not able to read the subtitles. 3)The third group is formed by Central European countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary) using both subtitling and dubbing, the former for cinema, the latter for television broadcast. 4)The fourth group is the one of rather poor Central and Eastern European countries using voice-over. Especially Poland is well-known for this practice, but there are others (e.g. Latvia, Lithuania or Estonia). . LIP SYNC KINESIC SYNCHRONY ISOCHRONY = Domestication of the translated text, so the viewers don´t realize is a translation. Prefabricated
Realism Impression of reality.
Conjunction of images on motions
Credible photography and icons
Credible dialogues and sounds People involved:
Director of the film
Staff Quality standars to mantain impression of reality 1. Observance of the three kinds of
synchronization (isosynchrony).

2. Avoidance of overacting or underacting performances.

3. Elaboration of credible and natural dialogue,
convincing sentences, gestures and intonation. (real)

4. Semiotic coherence between words and images.

5. Technical accuracy.fine sound, appropiate volume and
voice quality, absence of noise and interferences.

6. Fidelity to the source text (ST). Preserve relevant
features. Repetition:keeping the same term or word order used in the ST.

Change of word or information order: syntactic, informative - topic/comment-, etc.

Substitution:synonyms, antonyms,general terms, hyponyms, metaphors, metonymies, expressive resources.

Omission of the relevant elements addition of a new, irrelevant element.

Reduction of synthesis of information / gloss of periphrasis, explicitation, reiteration. Translation
techniques La elección terminológica presenta menos restricciones.

El tono de voz puede reflejarse de manera más natural para los hablantes del idioma meta.

Se dobla cuando los países tiene una lengua dominante.

La elección del doblaje o subtitulado se debe al nivel económico, nivel cultural y reivindicación política.

Las clases más populares prefieren el doblaje, la inmediatez del sentido y la facilidad en la comprensión, el disfrute sin esfuerzo. Disonancia cognitiva para el espectador (se ve una boca que se mueve pero las palabras no coinciden)

Para evitar el problema de la incongruencia entre la voz y los labios existe una técnica llamada lipping o dubbing lip-sync. El traductor especializado debe elegir palabras que se ajusten a los labios.

Las voces y el sonido del entorno no son originales.

Perdida semiótica que en el subtitulado no sucede.

Los diálogos no son tan precisos como deberían.

El doblaje es más lento y más caro que el subtitulado. PROS CONTRAS La obra audiovisual 'Narrador implícito', las imágenes en cine tiene un sentido, no solo lo que muestran sino y sobre todo como lo muestran. LIP-SYNC KINESIC SYNCHRONY ISOCHRONY 3 types of synchronization. Synchronization Basic characteristic in dubbing.

Matching the TL translation with the articulatory and body movements of the screen actors.

Matching the utterances and pauses in the translation with those of the ST.

Direct impact on the translation process and product.

It forces the translator to develop their creative skills. Make the meaning of kinesic sign explicit either
because understanding them is essential, or because missing them would break the cinematographic dream between F & V.

(1)Kinesic signs are accompanied by words which make the meaning explicit.

(2)They can appear alone, with no spoken word, caption,sound or some other icon.

(1)Translator translates the words accompanied by the kinesic sign, on other cases (2)the translator will have to decide whether and explanation of the sign is necessary or not.

(1)It is meaningful to both culture to use the conventional words or phrases that normally accompanied the sign.

As a result viewers understand the sign, the gesture, the movement, because belong to their culture.

Semiotic redundancy dispels any possible ambiguity. But it also
forces the translator to be respectful to this cohesive device
since will condition the words selected to explain them. Strategy: Technique: - Natural translation.
- substitution of the original words
by other sentences categories.
- Repetition of the original Coherent with actor´s body movement. --- Equal duration of utterances---

Mouth articulation movements are related to isochrony and lip-sync.

It compels translator to fit the length of the translation with the length of screen characters´utterances.

Rough translation does not fit the screen character´s mouth movements.

In amplification and reduction techniques have several stylistic resources or translation techniques at hand to overcome problems posited by isochrony- Strategy: To fit a rough translation into the duration of the screen character´s utterances (mouth articulation movements, pauses silence. Techniques: Amplification: expansion of the TT - repetition, gloss periphrasis, anacoluthon (when a sentence change from one structure to another), paraphrase, synonyms, antonyms,
Most of these techniques also confer a fresher and
more oral touch to the translation (dubbing standard)

Reduction:ellipsis of performative verbs, modal verbs, interjections, expressions just performance social tasks (hello), vocatives, proper names, omission of redundancies with the images, metaphors, metonymy. Mouth articulation and duration of the utterances - key factors ´Phonetic synchrony´ (real practice iso & PS)

Types of shots have to be analyzed.

It is only observed in close-up and extreme, big close-up.

Dialogue writers adapt the translation to the articulatory movements of the on-screen characters, making sure that the translation respects the open vowels,bilabial and labio-dental consonants.

3 codes:
Linguistic code:words containing a bilabial phoneme or an open vowel.
Mobility code:actors mouthing these words on screen.
Shot code:close-ups and extreme close-ups.

Phonetic equivalence substitutes semantic or even pragmatic equivalence.

Phonetical equivalence is the first order priority in professional practice. Domestication of a foreign product so it appears to be realistic and credible and related to the audience expectations and experiences. Strategy: Choosing words in the TL containing the same or similar phonemes as those found on ST(close-ups, extremes close-ups or shouts of mouths. Techniques: Repetition of the word or words on the SL.

Change of word order(syntactic or informative -topic/comment-) word with marked phoneme coincide in ST and TL.

Substitution of the target word. Literal translation of the source word, synonym, antonym, etc.

Reduction or amplification of the word, phrase, sentence.

Omission of a word or a sentence constituent or addition of a new element. Dubbing (the invisible translator) An artistic and technical exercise, which
erases the original dialogue track and substitutes it for another track in TL.

Emphasis on matching the translation with the soundless mouth of original actor.

The viewers watch and hear foreign actor speaking in their domestic language. Fases del doblaje Convenciones del doblaje Las unidades de doblaje: los "takes" Convenciones:
Un mismo actor no puede intervenir en más de 5 renglones en la misma toma.

La cantidad máxima de líneas en un take no puede exceder los diez renglones.

Si hay una pausa en el T que exceda los 15´, el traductor o adaptador cortarán la toma e iniciarán otra nueva.

Con un cambio de escena significativo, se aconseja un cambio de toma. Símbolos del doblaje (OFF) personaje que no aparece en pantalla.

(ON) personaje en pantalla y boca perceptible.

(DE) personaje en pantalla y de espaldas.

(DC) personaje en pantalla y de costado.

(SB) personaje en pantalla / no se ve boca.

(PIS) (P) un persona se superpone al final de la frase a
otro personaje.
(R) risas.

(G)(GS)(G G) gestos.

(AD LIB)-ad libitum- diálogos de fondo.

/ pausa de 4 a 5 seg. > 5 no se marcan

//pausa entre 5 y 15 seg.

(CP) cambio de plano (mitad o final de frase)

(A) empezar a hablar antes del original.

(IE) inicio de efecto de sonido.

(FE) fin efecto de sonido.

(AMB) ambiente.

(TAP) un objeto que cubre la boca del personaje.

(S) pausa en V:O: que no afecta el ajuste.

(SS) movimiento de boca sin sonido.

(ATT) personaje habla a través del teléfono.

(ATR) personaje habla a través de la radio.

ATTv) personaje habla a través de la TV

(REVER) avisa al técnico que añada reverberación en esa
frase. Planos Ángulos Ritmo Fotografía Música Voz Espacio escénico en pantalla.

Todo lo que registra la cámara de principio a fin.

Descriptivos, narrativos y expresivos. El ángulo imaginario que forma una linea perpendicular al objetivo de la cámara y que pasa por la cara del personaje principal.

Ángulo normal.

Ángulo picado.

Ángulo contrapicado.

Ángulo subjetivo. El ritmo está al servicio de la narración y transmite sensaciones.


Suave. Iluminación y manejo del color.

La fotografía tiene un valor expresivo , estético y narrativo.

La iluminación es el valor contextual para describir ambientes y provocar sensaciones. Tiene un carácter marcadamente cultural y puede diferir de una cultura a otra.

Funciones de la música.

Crear una atmósfera.
Evocar el paso del tiempo.
Evocar un periodo histórico.
Revelar la naturaleza de un personaje, sus emociones y pensamientos.
Crear una emoción en el espectador.
Caracterizar un personaje.
Anticipar sucesos.
Crear una ilusión para confundir premeditadamente al espectador.
Subrayar un aspecto concreto.
Proporcionar ritmo a la película. Dimensión oral o 'sonora' del guión.

Elementos paralingüísticos proporcionan información del sentido de las palabras.

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