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Phylum: Loricifera

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Cynthia Tsang

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Phylum: Loricifera

Kingdom: Animilia
The intestinal system consists of a buccal tube, pharynx, esophogus, midgut, and rectum.
Body has three distinct regions, a head a neck and a trunk.
Metazoic: A phylum of multicellular invertebrates.
Their habitat is in the spaces between marine sediment to which they attach themselves.
They are found at all depths, in different marine sediment types, and in all latitudes.
They complete their life cycle in the total absence of light and oxygen
Bilaterally symmetrical
Body has more than two cell layers and includes tissues and organs.
There is no circulatory system and no endocrine system.
Discovered in 1983 by Reinhardt Kristensen, in Roscoff, France.
There are about 10 known species.
The Lorica is a set of specialized umbrella skeleton like scales at each end that are used to move the animals.
Mitochondria-less, Loriciferans have hydrogenosome organelles, and in their complex enzyme processing, they us hydrogen instead of oxygen.
Loricifera is neither bacteria nor virus. It is a significantly large multicellular creature – 1.016 mm (4/100 inch) in length.
Similar in size to large single-celled protozoans with about 10,000 specialized cells creating a tiny but complex body.
Loricifera are the first multicellular organisms known to spend their entire lives in an oxygen-free environment.
The nervous system consists of a large brain within the spiny head, called the "introvert" and nerve ganglia.
Life Cycle
They have sexual and asexual life cycles.
A. The free-laid egg.
B. Embryo inside the egg.
C. First instar larva (Higgins larva)
D. Last instar larva with a single ovary developed by neoteny.
E. The cyst-like larval formation with toes
F. The neotenous larva escapes from the old larval exuvium.
G. Post larva without toes.
H1. Female with ovaries
H2. Male with testes
3 Types of Life Cycles:
(Fig. A,B,C and H1, H2) Higgins larva moults direct to a mature male or female.
(Fig. A,B,C,G and H1, H2) Higgins larva moults into a postlarva without toes and gonads.
(Fig. D,E,F)
Higgins larva goes through a Parthenogenic life cycle.
Higgins larva outnumber the adults by a factor of 100.
Loriciferans are metazoans:
Do not colonize
Communicate through sexual reproduction
Loriciferans are very rarely observed alive.
Loriciferans eat Bacteria.
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