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Transcript of Lake Urmia
Unique brine shrimp species, “Artemia urmiana”.
Urmia lake’s water is brine water
- Biggest one: Shahi
- Second biggest: Kabudan (burial place of Hulagu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan and the sacker of Baghdad)
- Smallest: Osman fist
Surface area: 6100 km² (2000 mile²) in 1995
55 Km (34 miles)
140 Km (87 miles)
- Name: Urmia, Rezaiyeh, Chichest (Glittering)
- 1273 m above sea level
- Endorheic or terminal lake
- Third Salty lake on Earth
- 140 km long
- 55 km wide
- 102 Islands
Features of Lake
- 212 species of birds: flamingos, pelicans, spoonbills, ibises, storks, shelducks, avocets, stilts, and gulls
- 41 reptiles
- 7 amphibians
- 27 species of mammals including the Iranian yellow deer
Home and habitat of
1. PECAD (no date). USDA/FAS/OGA and NASA Global Agriculture Monitoring (GLAM) Project. Lake and reservoir surface height variations from the USDA’s Global Reservoir and Lake (GRLM) web site at: http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/. Altimetric lake level time-series variations from the Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2/OSTM, and Geosat Follow-On (GFO) missions.
2. Alipour, S. (2006). Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of Urmia Salt Lake, Iran. Saline Systems, 2, 9. doi: 10.1186/1746-1448-2-9.
3. Eimanifar, A. and Mohebbi, F. (2007). Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review. Saline Systems, 3, 5. doi: 10.1186/1746-1448-3-5.
4. Zeinoddini, M., Tofighi, M. , Vafaee, F. (2009). Evaluation of dike-type causeway impacts on the flow and salinity regimes in Urmia Lake, Iran. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 35(1), 13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jglr.2008.08.001.
5. Abbaspour, M. and Nazaridoust, A. (2007). Determination of environmental water requirements of Lake Urmia, Iran: an ecological approach. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 64(2), 161-169. doi: 10.1080/00207230701238416.
6. Agh, N., van Stappen, G., Bossier, P., Sepehri, H., Lotfi, V., Razavi Rouhani, S., Sorgeloos, P. (2008). Effects of Salinity on Survival, Growth, Reproductive and Life Span Characteristics of Artemia Populations from Urmia Lake and Neighboring Lagoons. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11(2), 164-172.
7. Golabian, H. (2010). Urumia Lake: Hydro-Ecological Stabilization and Permanence Macro-engineering Seawater in Unique Environments (pp. 365-397). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14779-1_18.
8. Micklin, P. (2007). The Aral Sea Disaster. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 35(1), 47-72. doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.35.031306.140120.
9. SEDAC (2010). Gridded Population of the World: Future Estimates. Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) in collaboration with CIESIN, UN-FAO, CIAT.
Aim: We would like to bring back Flamingos again to their homes
* 3 reason of shriveling of Lake was investigated.
* Serious effects of this catastrophe was defined.
* Several possible action to revive not only Iran’s lake but also our lake was discussed.
Ave Depth: 6 m
Max Depth: 16 m
1995: 6100 km²
2011: 2366 km²
the lake lost more than 65% of its surface area
Satellite altimeter data:
in 1995, 1278 m
in 2011, 1271 m
1. Reducing the amount of water diverted for agriculture, domestic and industrial use
2. The other widely suggested solution is to divert water from elsewhere to make up for the lost water volume no longer reaching the lake.
- Caspian sea (300 km and the cost has been estimated at around
US$ 4 to 5.5 billion, take 5 years)
- Zab river
- Aras river
3. Cloud seeding
The lake is also known for its medical effects, especially for curing Rheumatism and Arthritis.
Serious impact Cont.
- Optimal Concentration: under 200g/l
- Current Concentration 300g/l
- Over than 320 g/l = fatal for brine shrimp
*Artemia is primary production: lake’s algae and the diverse migratory bird population.
39 Construction Dam
For purpose of irrigation.
Zarrinerud river was discharged
94% for agriculture
Underground water resources
no control by Government
Diversion & Dam
The Lake Urmia calls us and says if you hear: “I am thirsty”
The lake was not only shrinking, but also being heavily contaminated.
started to shrivel in the 1970s, it could attract the attention of media only in 1990s.
numerous symbolic protests went on with growing participation of both the inhabitants of the region and the environmentalists from different parts of Iran.
2009 People protesting: “Let’s go to Urmia and fill it up
with our tears”. (150 pp. arrested)
2010 on the World Environment Day (70 pp. arrested)
2011 thousands of people from Tabriz and Urmia
(death of tens pp. and any news regarding the
situation of the Lake Urmia was prohibited)
Reaction of people
Aral Sea, located 1200 km to
the northeast of Lake Urmia
- reduced vegetation growth
- reduced crop yields
- ill effects on wild and domestic animals
- illness; tuberculosis, infections and parasites, typhus, hepatitis and paratyphoid
- eye problems
- throat cancer
Greater concerns are at stake for the Middle East
- 8 billion tons of salt is concentrated at the bottom of the Lake Urmia
- The watershed of the lake is an
important agricultural region
around lake 6.4 million pp.
76 million pp. radius of 500 km.
Serious impact cont.
Serious impact Cont.
decreased circulation within the lake and altered the pattern of water chemistry
Initiated in 1970s, abandoned in 1979 (revolution)
Revived in 2000s in wrong way, finished in 2008
- climate change and diversion of surface water for upstream use.
- Construction of dams
Problem of Lake
Thanks for attention