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Jacksonian Democracy & The Age of Reform
Transcript of Jacksonian Democracy & The Age of Reform
Tariff of 1828 - passed during John Quincy Adams's Presidency - greatly angered Southerners
It made goods more expensive and hindered Britain's cotton purchasing power
Nicknamed "Tariff of Abominations"
Calhoun initially supported it, but his constituents did not. Calhoun sided with his state and became its champion
John C. Calhoun
Indians were one of the few obstacles to this Westward Expansion
The U.S. Government used treaties as one means to displace Indians from their tribal lands - Hence, the Indian Removal Act of 1830
Jackson negotiated 9 of 11 major Indian Removal treaties
Tribes such as the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw (the 'Civilized Tribes') knew they could not win a war
They hoped appeasement would work - give up some land to keep some of their land
Jacksonians developed a systematic approach to remove Indians
1830 – Congress passes Indian Removal Act
The President would grant Indians lands WEST of the Mississippi River - if they gave up their homelands
With the act in place, government agents could bribe, persuade, and threaten tribes to accept treaties
The Cherokee would fight it...in the courts
Indian Removal Act
“To the victor belong the spoils.”
Jackson wanted party allegiance
Replaced civil servant position with those loyal to him and his party
4 year limits on positions
He feared corruption
Cabinet was all loyal to him
Jackson's "Kitchen Cabinet"
After Jackson left office...
Banks raised interest rates
Other banks print lots of money
Banks began to collapse which led to a major depression in 1837
Many attribute the panic to Jackson's war on the bank.
Panic of 1837
In November the state of South Carolina held a convention and declared the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional
South Carolina voted to nullify the law
Tensions ran high, South Carolina threatened secession, Jackson asked Congress to pass a Force Bill - to use military force against any state that resisted the Tariff
Henry Clay and Calhoun brokered a compromise and things cooled down
Nullification Crisis of 1832
Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia (1831)
State of Georgia passed a law that said the Cherokees had no rights within their boundaries
Justice Marshall ruled the Supreme Court had no jurisdiction since the
Cherokee nation was a dependent nation (basically - it had no right to sue to the Supreme Court)
a relationship similar to a "a ward to its guardian"
Cherokee in Georgia
No candidate got the majority of electoral points
Jackson won popular vote
House had to decide
Henry Clay persuaded the House to vote for John Quincy Adams
Adams later made Clay Secretary of State
Jackson supporters called it Dirty or "Corrupt Bargain"
The "Favorite Son" Election of 1824
Jacksonian Democracy 1824 Election
: General Andrew Jackson seized the Spanish forts at Pensacola and St. Marks in his 1818 authorized raid against Seminoles and escaped slaves who were viewed as a threat to Georgia. (Adams defended Jackson's actions)
Adams used the Jackson’s military action to present Spain with a demand to either control the inhabitants of East Florida or cede it to the United States.
Spain gave Florida to the United States
The U.S. gave $0 for Florida
-BUT- agreed to pay $5 million in damages for Americans that rebelled against Spain in other parts of the country
Acquisition of Florida
The Age of Jackson
The Whigs could not decide who to run against Van Buren
They selected several candidates:
William Henry Harrison
Hugh L. White
Willie Person Mangum
Van Buren easily won
Unfortunately for him, the economic panic occurred in his first year - unpopular and lost in 1840
Martin Van Buren
The General Nuts and Bolts:
Stronger President/ Executive Branch & Weaker Congress
Expanded suffrage (voting) – All WHITE males (not just landowners)
Out of respect for the common man
Sought to broaden public participation in Government
That politicians should appoint followers to government positions to limit the power of elite groups
Favored "Manifest Destiny" - or westward expansion
What about Racism?
What was Jacksonian Democracy?
First term – “Era of good feelings”
Until Economic Panic and Missouri
After the Napoleonic Wars, most of Spain's colonial holdings gained their independence
A Franco-Spanish alliance formed to restore the Spanish monarchy and colonies (France would get Cuba for helping)
The "Holy Alliance" (Congress of Vienna) sanctioned this
President Monroe warned European nations
not to intervene in the politics of North and South America
Announced that the
U.S. would prevent European naitons from interfering with independent countries
and that the
U.S. would remain neutral in affairs between European nations and their colonies
"Don’t re-colonize in the West!"
How can the U.S. possibly enforce such a measure?
The Answer - Great Britain - but why?
Also, does the Monroe Doctrine impact the U.S. today?
Webster, Clay and Adams formed new political party
Roads, canals, etc.
Supported a national bank and a set currency
Basically anything Jackson opposed
Two party system re-emerged:
Pro-Jacksonites - Democrats (Formerly Democratic Republicans)
Anti-Jacksonites - The Whigs
The Birth of the Whigs
Both parties fought over the Bank - its charter was set to expire in 1832
Jackson opposed the bank - saw it as a privileged institution and an enemy of the common man
Clay and Webster fought in Congress for early re-charter.
They hoped Jackson would veto the charter - they planned to use it in the campaign against him
Jackson vetoed the bank - he still won the election against Clay
Jackson vs. Bank of U.S.
Trail of Tears
Jackson formed a new party - The Democrats
Campaigned as the "common man"
Supporters accused Jackson's opponents of flattery to European monarchs
John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay - The National Republicans
Supporters of Adams accused Jackson of adultery, genocide, illegally executing soldiers, and dueling
Development of American Nationalism
After the War of 1812, the U.S. looked inward
Political leaders determined themselves to never be dragged into another European conflict, through Partisan Politics - especially one that almost tore the country apart.
This period became known as the "Era of Good Feelings"
One political party dominated the country - Democratic-Republicans
Most decided the time was right to strengthen and promote the U.S. and focus on internal improvements.
A New National Bank (2nd B.U.S.) was created to strengthen national finances and stabilize currency
A Tariff was passed to protect American Industry and pay for internal improvements
Roads and Canals were built to efficiently transport trade
AND - the Supreme Court strengthened the Federal Government's power through court decisions which backed the National Government over the State Government
We know this as "The American System"
In 1819, Alabama achieved statehood and balanced the ratio of slave states to free states
11 - Free
11 - Slave
In 1820, Missouri petitioned for statehood
Northern Senators were reluctant because this would increase the number of slave states - which meant an increase in the number of votes in Congress
Things got very tense
Henry Clay organized a compromise
Missouri Compromise of 1820
admitted as a slave state
, formerly a part of Massachusetts, was admitted as a free state
Excluding Missouri, slavery was excluded from Louisiana Purchase lands north of the
Henry Clay - "The Great Pacifier" - deescalated the free vs slave state tensions - for awhile.
The Re-Birth of the Two Party System
The campaign sort of kicked off political pop culture in America
Both parties' publicized their accusations in songs, pamphlets, posters, and lapel buttons
Voters could attend the first ever campaign rallies and Barbecues
The Spoils System
Land hungry Americans poured into what is now Alabama and Mississippi (as well as North Georgia)
Hungry for inexpensive land and in the case of Georgia, gold
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
Worcester moved to New Echota (Cherokee territory) and protested from there without license
State of Georgia had him arrested
Worcester refused plea deal or pardon so that the Cherokee could argue their case in court
Georgia refused to send a lawyer - claiming no Indian could drag them to court
The Supreme Court ruled that the
Cherokee Nation was an independent nation
only the federal government
had the authority to deal with them
Jackson refused to enforce
"...the decision of the Supreme Court has fell still born, and they find that they cannot coerce Georgia to yield to its mandate,"
Treaty of New Echota
A Cherokee signing party that represented only a faction of the Cherokee - signed a treaty agreeing to relocation
The majority of the Cherokee followed principal chief John Ross
Daniel Webster and Henry Clay opposed the treaty, but it was ratified by Congress
The Cherokee would receive, according to the treaty:
$500,000 for education
John Ross continued to fight, to no avail. The Cherokee had three years to leave
In 1838, under the guns of federal troops and Georgia state militia, the Cherokee tribe were forced from their homes
Some fled to North Carolina, into the mountains, where they hid and have remained ever since.
Evidence indicates that between three and four thousand (3,000 - 4,000) out of the fifteen to sixteen thousand (15,000 - 16,000) Cherokees died en route from the brutal conditions of the “Trail of Tears.”
A group of Cherokee sought revenge and killed several members of the tribe who negotiated the "New Echota Treaty." This kicked off a Cherokee Civil War which lasted for decades
With the exception of a small number of Seminoles still resisting removal in Florida, by the 1840s, from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, no Indian tribes resided in the American South. Through a combination of coerced treaties and the contravention of treaties and judicial determination, the United States Government succeeded in paving the way for the westward expansion and the incorporation of new territories as part of the United States.
An ardent nationalist at the outset of his political career - during Jackson's Presidency, Calhoun began to evolve into the prominent spokesman for "state's rights" and the slave plantation system of the antebellum South
In 1832, Jackson signed a new Tariff into law
Calhoun resigned that year, Martin Van Buren took over
Jackson left office in 1836 more popular than when he entered it.
The Age of Reform
Hudson River Valley
“Legend of Sleepy Hollow”
Louisa May Alcott - “Little Women”
Edgar Allen Poe – “The Raven”
Nathaniel Hawthorne – “The Scarlet Letter”
Herman Melville – “Moby Dick”
Women were, however, on the forefront of the Reform Movements such as Temperance and Abolition
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and the Grimke Sisters became advocates of female equality
Stanton and Mott organized a meeting "to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women."
Seneca Falls Convention
( July 19-20, 1848) - Seneca Falls, New York
300 people including 40 men attended
Stanton drafted the
"Declaration of Sentiments"
modeled after the Declaration of Independence
called for an end to unequal treatment of women
This marks the beginning of the Women's Rights Movement
Women's Rights Movement
Wide ranging groups of people with different interests
Profanity, alcohol, tobacco, slavery, etc.
Miracle cures, communes, polygamy, celibacy, etc.
attacked war, cruelty, discrimination
From Massachusetts - Reformed public education
Led the Common School Movement
Hoped to create good citizens, unite society, and prevent crime and poverty
Mann advocated free public education, better school houses, increase teachers pay, longer terms, more curriculum, expanded to other states
created a model we still use today
Noah Webster (American Dictionary) and William McGuffey (Reader) also propose reforms
Emotional meetings designed to awaken religious faith through preaching and prayer
Circuit Riding Preachers
Baptist and Methodists denominations exploded
Methodism became the fastest growing protestant denomination in the country
Attempts to create perfect societies
Transcendentalist thoughts were taught
Farm New Harmony (Indiana) – failed
The “Shakers” shunned sex
Recruited members – sustained until the 1940s
"Cult of Domessticity"
Movement which sought to
Renewed interest in the groups began in the 1830s.
Three primary groups emerged:
American Colonization Society (1818)
called for emancipation and transportation of freed slaves back to Africa
The American Antislavery Society (1833)
led by William Lloyd Garrison - called for immediate emancipation by any means necessary
The Liberty Party
A moderate group, pledged to end slavery through legal and political means
Stress of industrial environment, poor water quality, and cheapness of liquor - contributed to an increase in alcohol consumption
– effort to prohibit the drinking of alcohol
Alcohol – “Demon Rum,” blamed for
Low work productivity, spousal and child abuse
The movement grew out of a desire to protect women and children from abuse and poverty associated with workingman spending pay on liquor
The movement originally tried to get people to
- but later changed to pledges of
Temperance societies developed
Maine became first state to go “dry”
Most temperance groups merged into the
American Temperance Society
Alcohol consumption decreased, but it failed to abolish liquor in the United States
Pushed for prison reform after visiting a prison and realized that many in prison were mentally ill. She pushed for mental hospitals
State supported colleges spread
UGA, UNC, UVA
Small Liberal Arts Colleges emerge
Most have religious affiliations
Women’s colleges and seminaries develop
Oberlin College in Ohio becomes the first to admit black people and later women
New Schools, Colleges, Universities, & Seminaries
In the 1820s a 2nd Great Awakening arose in America
Emphasised Individual responsibility for seeking salvation
Arminianism (Free Will) over Calvinism
It is said that it was a reaction to skepticism, Deism, and rationalism (emphasized reason over religion)
Out of this came a movement, a desire by Christians to do "Good Works" and attack the perceived social ills of America
Religion Sparks Reform
Forms of protest that uses peaceful means of refusal to obey laws
Philosophical & literary movement that emphasized living simple life based on nature
Hudson River School
1st significant art movement
Mostly landscape paintings
American “Minstrel Shows” emerged
“Darky” tunes and folk music
"Father of American Music"
In the 1840s, there was little public education
Few tax supported schools outside New England
Only the wealthy educated their children
Many reformers believed that in order for democracy to be effective an educated population would be needed
Universal suffrage voted for universal education
Women of the early 1800s were legally and socially inferior to men.
Women could not vote
If married, could not own property or retain their earnings
Early 19th century belief that “housework and childcare” were the only proper activities for married women, women were “imprisoned”
Jacksonian Democracy and the Age of Reform
Note* This is a recording of the Stephen Foster song "Oh Susanna." It uses the original words and vernacular published in the 19th c. which have since been changed. It does include racially insensitive words. What does this song, and the word choice tell you about 19th c. America.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
“Self-Reliance,” “The American Scholar”
Henry David Thoreau
“Walden,” “Civil Disobedience”