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Transcript of Sexual Orientation
A New Paradigm for Understanding Women’s Sexuality and Sexual Orientation The Hetero Questionnaire The Biology of the Homosexual Martin Rochlin Roger N. Lancaster Letita Anne Peplau & Linda D. Garnets The Intersexed Hypothalamus Three Gay Studies ONE TWO Brotherhood THREE The "Gay Gene" Simon LeVay (1991) Michael Bailey and Richard Pillard (1991) Rejecting and challenging oppressive models... Fluidity and plasticity Masculinity and Femininity
Gender = Sexuality ? The Illness Model Challenging The Biological Model The Inversion Model White Hat Green Hat Black Hat Hat It Out Influence Social Environment
Within-Person Variation/Change over time
Attitude Behavior Consistency Childhood
Institutions Completing college nearly doubles a man's probability to identify as gay while it increases the chance in women by 900%. -Written in 1972 Possible Purposes: Possible Outcomes: Dichotomization: “The emerging view of scholars is that sexual orientation is multiply determined by many influences. No single factor reliably predicts whether a woman embarks on a path toward heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality or some other pattern.” Naming Sexual Prejudice In 1972 -- To give the heterosexual person insight into the oppressiveness of a heterosexual frame of reference towards gays and lesbians. Today -- What would be the possible purpose if it was released in the context of 2012? Possibly the same as in 1972. We still live in largely heteronormative societies that oppress any other type of sexuality. -Martin Rochlin (1928-2003) was one of the founders of the Association of Gay Psychologists. Helped remove homosexuality from the list of mental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. -"This Heterosexual Questionnaire reverses the questions that are very often asked of gays and lesbians by straight people." [Rochlin, 1972. 166] -"Non-progressives" might try to answer the questions honestly without the reflectiveness that Rochlin called for. They will probably become offended and will not listen to "progressive reason". -"Progressives" might insult "non-progressives" for thinking differently than they do. -People who already think "progressively" sing the praises of the Questionnaire and send it to other "progressives" who will agree with them. The Questionnaire is centered toward heterosexuals and homosexuals only. There is no spectrum to account for anyone who may fall in between. Does the Questionnaire actually do what was intended? •Looked at the 3rd interstitial nucleus of the hypothalamus in 41 cadavers
•Reportedly found that the structure is, on average, smaller in gay men and straight women than in straight men
•Theorized that lesbians should have larger structure like males Key Problems Subjects were deceased prior to the study
Researcher did not factor AIDs into the results
Did not test theory
No statistically significant results
Did not account for environmental influences •Conducted a survey of 56 pairs monozygotic (identical) twins, 54 pairs of dizygotic (fraternal) twins, 142 non-twin brothers, and 57 pairs of adoptive brothers
•Found that the percentage of pairs of brothers both identifying as gay was highest for identical twins:
•52% concordance rate for identical twins•22% concordance rate for fraternal twins•10% concordance rate for non-twins and adoptive brothers, each Key Problems Recruited subjects from gay newspapers
Ignores non-biological evidence
No statistically significant results
Does not account for environmental influence 1st study
• 76 gay men in a pedigree study (study of how a trait is distributed among a kinship group or group aggregated by the one thing they all share)
-of 26 men, interviewed 46 family members, 122 participants
• Found more maternal links to homosexual relatives than paternal links
• Hypothesis that transmission of homosexual gene on X chromosome
• 38 pairs of gay brothers without lesbian or paternally linked homosexual relatives so could isolate the maternal link
• Resulted in a stronger maternal pattern
DNA Linkage Analysis
• All 38 pairs of gay brothers from 2nd study and 2 pairs of gay brothers from 1st study
• Reported “evidence” of genetic link through mother ; 33 of 40 pairs (82%) shared a DNA marker, Xq28, on X chromosome Dean Hamer (1993) Positives & Negatives + Tries to control some variable
+ Acknowledges "link" does not mean "cause"
- Not stastically significant results
- Too small sample size
- Ignores social and environmental influences and heredity
- No control group Lancaster's Argument Constructionist
Can’t do “good” biological scientific research because terms of sexual preference and desire is too subjective and ambiguous to gauge
Too much variation of social response to sexuality over time to measure environmental effects Sexual Orientation and the Media Promotes folkloric ideas of science
Exposure as a form of entertainment
Subliminal "gay" inserts in ads... why? Hegemony Heterosexuality, The Norm? Social Psychologist, Baumeister: " The currently available data offer the best guess that male homosexuality is more strongly linked to innate or genetic determinants while female honmosexuality remains more subject to personal choice and social influence. (p. 159)" the closest thing we have is genetics.