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Female Leadership in Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaque
Transcript of Female Leadership in Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaque
Tonkean macaques (
Structured versus unstructured
Japanese macaques (
no specificity in their movement structure
Gather information from many group members
Chacma baboons (
Dominant males lead group to food patches
Black and gold howler monkeys (
Males lead during intergroup encounters
Black howler monkeys (
Partially distributed leadership
Highest-ranking females initiate
White-handed gibbons (
Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (
Female-bonded social organization
1. Introduction to Thesis
2. Literature Review
• Social network
• Tibetan macaques
6. Works Cited
Table of Contents
Valley of the Wild Monkeys in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China
Yulingkeng A1 (YA1)
38 individuals (4 AM and 9 AF)
Habituated to human presence
Provision with corn 3-4 times daily
Yulingkeng A2 (YA2)
52 individuals (9 AM and 14 AF)
Methods: Subjects & Study Site
Leadership in Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaques (
) at Mt. Huangshan, China
Thesis Proposal - May 2014
Native to east-central China
Terrestrial and diurnal
Feed on fruits and leaves
moving group of individuals that go in the same direction, maintain cohesion and reach a new location
High-ranking individuals initiated more successful movements
Frequency of successful movements did not significantly differ between mature and immature monkeys or between males and females
Two females were the most successful leaders but statistically insignificant
Sexual Selection Theory
Female reproductive success depends on access to high quality food resources
Male reproductive success depends on the availability of females to mate with
The Present Study
Record collective movements of two macaque troops residing at Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China
Focus on leader/follower dynamics and social network analysis
Determine whether or not the social connectivity and selection pressure of females results in a significant increase in their leadership role
Decision-Making: Self-Organizing Principles
- threshold of individuals performing a behavior necessary for others to display the same behavior
- contribute to decision by joining according to the number of individuals who are already joining
- contribute to decision by joining according to the number of individuals who are already joining and social/affiliative relationships
- one initiator
- more than one initiator
- all individuals can initiate
- certain individuals can initiate
Leading According to Need
Individuals with a greater incentive to meet needs are more likely to lead
Spatial position of leaders can differ
Leaders and followers possess different personality traits
(1) - less tolerant/despotic
(4) - more tolerant/egalitarian
Macaque: Four-Graded Scale
Macaque: Social Style & Collective Movement
Multimale, multifemale groups
Males outnumber females
Philopatric females, dispersal males
Tibetan Macaque: Social Organization
Males obtain top ranks
Females obtain rank below mothers
Youngest daughters outrank older siblings
Mothers, daughters and sisters maintain preferential bonds
Males can develop strong relationships
Tibetan Macaque: Dominance & Kinship
≈ 348 hours in the field
Reliability of individual identification, affiliative and agonistic behaviors
Observations from viewing platforms
Only adults considered
Restriction of movement
Tourist and observer behaviors
Hypothesis & Predictions
Females will initiate more collective movements
(1) High-ranking females will lead more
(2) Movements with more females will progress
(3) YA1 will be more successful than YA2
Collective Movement - All-Occurrence Sampling
- individual moves >10 meters away from a stationary group in <40 seconds
- individual moves >5 meters within a 45 angle of the initiator’s movement direction within 5 minutes
- ≥2 individuals follow initiator
- no individual follows an initiator within 5 minutes
- individual turns his or her head
- individual ceases movement for ≥2 seconds
- high-pitched vocalization with differing frequency units
Social Networks - Focal & Scan Sampling
Methods: Social Network Analysis
Individual in a social network shown as circles, triangles or squares
Interaction/association between ≥2 nodes shown by a line
Number of edges joined to a node
Number of shortest paths between 2 nodes that pass through node of interest
Extent to which nodes are
clustered in space
Degree of the node as well as the degree of those nodes the node of interest is connected to
Dyadic dominance index (DDI)
Dyadic association index (DAI)
Half-weight index (HWI)
Committee chair -
Dr. Lixing Sun
Committee members -
Dr. Lori Sheeran
Dr. Megan Matheson
Graduate cohort, friends & family
National Science Foundation (
CWU Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (
) board (#A011403)
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