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Female Leadership in Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaque

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Gregory Fratellone

on 16 February 2015

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Transcript of Female Leadership in Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaque

Rhesus (
M. mulatta
)
&
Tonkean macaques (
M. tonkeana
)

Structured versus unstructured







Japanese macaques (
M. fuscata
)

no specificity in their movement structure
Signals
(intentional) or
cues
(unintentional)










Gather information from many group members
Chacma baboons (
Papio ursinus
)
Distributed leadership
Dominant males lead group to food patches








Black and gold howler monkeys (
Alouatta caraya
)
Distributed leadership
Males lead during intergroup encounters
Black howler monkeys (
Alouatta pigra
)
Partially distributed leadership
Highest-ranking females initiate








White-handed gibbons (
Hylobates lar
)
Distributed leadership
Females initiate
Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (
Rhinopithecus roxellana
)

Female-bonded social organization

1. Introduction to Thesis

2. Literature Review
• Decision-making
Self-Organization
Leadership
• Social network
• Tibetan macaques

3. Hypothesis

4. Methods

5. Acknowledgments

6. Works Cited



Table of Contents
Introduction
Valley of the Wild Monkeys in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China

Yulingkeng A1 (YA1)
38 individuals (4 AM and 9 AF)
Habituated to human presence
Provision with corn 3-4 times daily

Yulingkeng A2 (YA2)
52 individuals (9 AM and 14 AF)

Methods: Subjects & Study Site
Leadership in Collective Movements of Tibetan Macaques (
Macaca thibetana
) at Mt. Huangshan, China

Thesis Proposal - May 2014
Gregory Fratellone

Decision-Making: Leadership
Social Networks
Belong to
sinica-arctoides
lineage

Native to east-central China

Terrestrial and diurnal

Feed on fruits and leaves

Seasonal breeders

Tibetan Macaques
Collective movement
: synchronously
moving group of individuals that go in the same direction, maintain cohesion and reach a new location
Preliminary Study
High-ranking individuals initiated more successful movements

Frequency of successful movements did not significantly differ between mature and immature monkeys or between males and females

Two females were the most successful leaders but statistically insignificant
Sexual Selection Theory
Female reproductive success depends on access to high quality food resources

Male reproductive success depends on the availability of females to mate with
The Present Study
Record collective movements of two macaque troops residing at Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China

Focus on leader/follower dynamics and social network analysis

Determine whether or not the social connectivity and selection pressure of females results in a significant increase in their leadership role
Decision-Making: Self-Organizing Principles
Quorum Response
- threshold of individuals performing a behavior necessary for others to display the same behavior

Mimetism
:
Anonymous
- contribute to decision by joining according to the number of individuals who are already joining

Selective
- contribute to decision by joining according to the number of individuals who are already joining and social/affiliative relationships
Personal (Unshared)
- one initiator






Distributed (Shared)
- more than one initiator
Equal
- all individuals can initiate

Partial
- certain individuals can initiate
Leading According to Need
Individuals with a greater incentive to meet needs are more likely to lead
Female Leadership
Male Leadership
Spatial position of leaders can differ












Leaders and followers possess different personality traits








Leader-Follower Dynamics
Hierarchy

Kinship

Affiliation

Knowledge

Motivation
Social Information
Social Organization

(1) - less tolerant/despotic







(4) - more tolerant/egalitarian
Macaque: Four-Graded Scale
Macaque: Social Style & Collective Movement
Multimale, multifemale groups

Males outnumber females

Philopatric females, dispersal males
Tibetan Macaque: Social Organization
Males obtain top ranks

Females obtain rank below mothers

Youngest daughters outrank older siblings

Mothers, daughters and sisters maintain preferential bonds

Males can develop strong relationships
Tibetan Macaque: Dominance & Kinship
Data collection
:
≈ 348 hours in the field
Reliability of individual identification, affiliative and agonistic behaviors
Observations from viewing platforms
Only adults considered

Potential factors
:
Mating season
Restriction of movement
Tourist and observer behaviors
Methods: Procedures
Hypothesis & Predictions
Females will initiate more collective movements

(1) High-ranking females will lead more


(2) Movements with more females will progress
quicker


(3) YA1 will be more successful than YA2

Collective Movement - All-Occurrence Sampling
Initiator
- individual moves >10 meters away from a stationary group in <40 seconds

Follower
- individual moves >5 meters within a 45 angle of the initiator’s movement direction within 5 minutes

Successful
- ≥2 individuals follow initiator

Unsuccessful
- no individual follows an initiator within 5 minutes

Back glance
- individual turns his or her head

Pause
- individual ceases movement for ≥2 seconds

Call
- high-pitched vocalization with differing frequency units
Social Networks - Focal & Scan Sampling
Affiliation
Proximity
Grooming

Agonistic
Threats
Lunges
Chases
Grabs
Bites
Methods: Social Network Analysis
Node
Individual in a social network shown as circles, triangles or squares
Edge
Interaction/association between ≥2 nodes shown by a line
Unweighted network
presence/absence of
interaction/association

Weighted network

strength/frequency of
interaction/association
Degree
Number of edges joined to a node
Betweenness
Number of shortest paths between 2 nodes that pass through node of interest
Clustering Coefficient
Extent to which nodes are
clustered in space
Eigenvector Centrality
Degree of the node as well as the degree of those nodes the node of interest is connected to
Statistics
Tests
Chi-squared
Spearman rank
Mann-Whitney

Indices
Dyadic dominance index (DDI)

Dyadic association index (DAI)

Half-weight index (HWI)
Acknowledgments
Committee chair -
Dr. Lixing Sun
Committee members -
Dr. Lori Sheeran
&
Dr. Megan Matheson
Mentors -
Debbie Lewis
&
Xi Wang
Graduate cohort, friends & family
National Science Foundation (
NSF
) grant
CWU Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (
IACUC
) board (#A011403)
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Works Cited: Continued
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104, 459-470.





1
14,21,24,27,29
14,27,31
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14
27,30,31
30
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7,12,42
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7,29,31,37
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7,37
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6,24
6,24
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4,34
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25,41
9,22,23,25,33,41
25,33,34
20,40
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4
4,20,33,39,44
4,20,33,39,44
31,33,34,39
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5,20,39,40
25,33
14,19
22,23
__________
4
Directed Edge







Undirected Edge
7,12,42
7,12,42
Initiation of interaction/association shown with an arrow

Relations assumed to not be reciprocated
8
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