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Mining

Science
by

Daniella LoGiudice

on 28 June 2013

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Transcript of Mining

Mining
Mining is the process of extracting valuable minerals such as iron, coal, gemstones, diamonds, fossil fuels, petroleum, etc. Commercial mining is done all around the world except for Antarctica.
What is mining?
We mine so that we can collect natural minerals and metals from the earth. After the minerals are mined they are sold. Resources such as petrol (which is used for transport) and coal (used for electricity) are important resources that we need for our economy to run. We mine to obtain any material that cannot be agriculturally grown or artificially created in a lab. Companies mine to earn a profit for the sale of the resource.


Why do we mine?
What are the major
ore/commodities mined in Australia?
What are the key components of open cut and underground mining?
Tunnels are blasted to reach minerals underground and special excavating machinery are used to extract the minerals. In underground mining, mining trucks are used (usually CAT trucks).
Underground Mining
Open cut mining is more effective than underground mining. The technique for underground mining is blasting the surface to remove the layers of soil and rock to be able to reach the minerals. It is cut in intervals that are usually 4 - 6 meters.
Open-cut Mining
Equipment needed
Excavators
Bulldozers
Earth movers
Dump trucks
Drag lines
Motor graders
Earth movers
Equipment needed:
Dump trucks
Miner
CAT trucks
Excavator
Hole borer
Shuttle car
Longwall mining equipment
Continuous miner
What is an
ore/commodity?
Ore =
is a naturally mined mineral found in the earth with several more valuable minerals located near it. The most valuable ore deposits are: Gold, copper and iron. They are valuable because they contain precious metal that are vital for the industry and trade business.
References
Ore/commodities
mined in Open-cut mines:
Coal
Copper
Gold
Granite
Gravel
Gypsum
Marble
Sand
Sandstone
Western Australia has the biggest mining industry and has the most number of mines in Australia
D
i
a
m
o
n
d
s
How many mines in Australia mine for Diamonds?
Operating mines:
(currently been used)
Argyle (WA) -
Open cut and underground
Ellendale (WA) -
Open cut
Historical mines:
(not used anymore)
Argyle Alluvials (WA)
Bow river (WA)
Merlin (NT)
Mineral deposit:
(Alot of diamonds found)
Ashmore (WA)
Copeton (NSW)
Ellendale (WA)
Seppelt (WA)
Venus smoke creek (WA)
Type:
Open-cut and underground mine
Location:
Lake Argyle, East Kimberly, WA.
Size:
450,000 square metres big
Opened:
In 1985
Facts:
Argyle mine is one of the largest diamond producer in the world by volume.
It produces 90% of the worlds pink diamonds
Produces 20% of the worlds diamonds.
The largest single source of diamonds
Minerals mined in Underground mines:
Alexandrite
Amethyst
Calcite
Copper
Diamond
Emerald
Galena/Lead
Gold
Graphite
Gypsum
Halite/salt
Nickel
Platinum
Pyrite
Ruby

Silver
Sulfur
Turquoise
Zinc
Harper, S 2006, Open-pit mining, Thinkquest, http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00461/open.htm


Argyle Mine
Ellendale Mine
Type:

Open-cut mine
Location:
Ellendale, WA
Opened:
1976
Facts:
Ellendale supplies 50% of the worlds yellow diamonds.
Ellendale mine has become so famous that their diamonds are now sold to Tiffany & co.
Is open cut or undergound mining more common for Diamonds?
Where in the world?
Diamonds are mainly found in:

North & South America
Most of Africa
Parts of Asia
Russia
WA
China
They can't be found in India, Greenland and Antartica.
Antartica and Greenland are impossible to have diamonds because they are ice.
Back in 4th century B.C. , India was one of the first countries to mine diamonds, but there are no more diamonds here because they have all been taken.
Diamonds can also be found in:
New Zealand
Europe

Current market value of Diamonds
Which country is the major buyer of Australian Diamonds?
Diamond Facts, World Diamond Council, US, http://www.diamondfacts.org/pdfs/media/media_resources/fact_sheets/Diamond_Industry_Fact_Sheet.pdf
Australia is ranked:
3rd for quality (after congo and Botswana)
4th in the world for the amount of carats mined
7th for weight
9th for value
Australia's Rank in the world
Years worth of Diamonds left in Australia
Australia does 10.41% of the world's diamond production.
India is the major buyer of Australian diamonds. Australia produces a rare diamond - "Rough diamond" that alot of countries want.
What are diamonds used for?
20% of the diamonds are used to make jewelery.
80% is used for industry
Diamonds are given as a present from a man to a woman as a gesture of love. They are the worlds most popular bought mineral, this is because of their rarity and they can only be scratched by another diamond.
Copper - $1.4 billion
Lead - $184 million
Gold - $13 billion
Silver - $59 million
Zinc - $239 million
Years worth of Diamonds left in the world
Diamonds are priced on a few things such as: size, colour, shape, weight and carats. Also if the diamonds are cut the price changes. Below is a chart for the average price of a yellow diamond. This chart determines the colour of the diamond, whether it is very faint or a vivid yellow.
This chart is for the price of a diamond from it's carat size. The prices range from 1,700 for a 0.5 carat to 13,000 for a 4 carat diamond.
Commodity =
is a useful or valuable item which is vital for our survival. They are wants or needs that are sold in either it's mined form or modified form.It is a raw material that can be bought or sold. Some examples are: Petroleum, natural gas, sugar, tea, gold and water.
The biggest mining
companies in Australia are:
Newmount
Ozminerals
Rio Tinto
Yan Coal
BPH
Newcrest
Vale
Teck
Diamonds are actually not that rare so they will be around for a long time. It is estimated that the two diamond mines in Australia will last for around 500 years. But if another mine gets discovered the it may last for 1,600 years.
In the world counting the number of mines that we currently have, diamonds will probably last for approximately 5,000 years.
Underground mining is more common for diamonds because they are found very deep below the earths surface.
Diamond Facts
Approximately 130,000,000 carats (26,000 kg) of diamonds are mined each year = A total value of nearly US$9 billion = AU$9.6 billion.
The word diamond comes from the Greek word meaning unbreakable.
Diamonds are the hardest known natural material.
For around 4,500 years diamonds have been used for industrial purposes.
The world's largest diamond was found in South Africa in 1905. It weighed 3,106.76 carats.
Diamonds are formed over a billion years deep under the earths crust (about 150km). They are then pushed to the surface by volcanoes.
It was only discovered in the 15th century that diamonds can only be cut with other diamonds.
McDaniel, M 2001, Ore, National geographic, http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/ore/?ar_a=1
2012, Diamonds, Geoscience Australia, http://www.ga.gov.au/minerals/mineral-resources/diamonds.html
Pink = Mineral deposit
Red = Operating mine
Green = Developing mine
Orange = Closed mine
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