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CliMates' Training on Climate Negotiations" - Full - Summit Version

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Mathilde Imer

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Transcript of CliMates' Training on Climate Negotiations" - Full - Summit Version

Objectives of this training
- To teach you how climate negotiations function

- To give you an overwiew of the main actors and institutions in the negotiations

- To present you the key concepts and issues at stake
Content of the training
Five Sessions :

1- History of Climate Negotiations

2-Structure and Process of the Conference of Parties

3- Negotiating Alliances

4- Technical Terms and Concepts Used During the Negotiations

5- Different Ways Forward...
Why training on climate negotiations?
1992
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

UN EARTH SUMMIT -CREATION OF THE UNFCCC

The UNFCCC is a global body that addresses climate change and
was created by the UN Earth Summit.

The
objective
of the UNFCCC is to
stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations,
“at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”

The UNFCCC holds an annual meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP)*
to negotiate international climate policy.

* all countries who signed the UNFCCC are called "parties", and a meeting of all these countries is called "conference of the parties" (COP)

CliMates was present at the COP n° 18 in Doha in November 2012!
The UNFCCC =
the institutionalization of climate negotiations
The most important results of the Earth Summit
The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:

- Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
- Agenda 21
- Forest Principles

Moreover, three important legally binding agreements were signed:

- Convention on Biological Diversity

- Framework Convention on Climate Change (= UNFCCC)
- Convention to Combat Desertification
A famous speech in Rio 92
Severn Suzuki
Severn Suzuki
1997
COP 3 - Kyoto, Japan
Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol
The first legally binding agreement
Contrary to the UNFCCC, which only encourages the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the Kyoto Protocol (KP) sets up
binding targets
to
reduce
emissions
by 5,2% below 1990 levels by 2012.

The KP recognizes the
responsibility of industrialized countries
for the current GHG levels in the atmosphere.

This is why the
legal commitments only regard 42 industrialized countries (called "Annex 1 parties").

As of 2011, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. Canada (red) has withdrawn from it. The US (light red) has signed but has not ratified it (= has not transposed it into national law). Annex 1 parties are in dark green.
COP 1 - BERLIN
COP 2 - GENEVA
COP 3 - KYOTO
COP 4 - BUENOS AIRES
COP 5 - BONN
2000 - 2001
COP 6 - Parts I & II
The Hague, Netherlands & Bonn, Germany
1998
COP 4 - Buenos Aires, Argentina
Adoption of the
"Buenos Aires Plan of Action"
The Buenos Aires Plan of action aims to :

strengthen the implementation of the UNFCCC

determine the operational details of Kyoto protocol

its deadline was fixed to the COP6
Unable to reach an agreement on some key issues under the Buenos Aires Plan of Action, the parties decided to
suspend the COP.
They resumed the negotiations later which ultimately resulted in the Bonn Agreements on the Implementation of the Buenos Aires Plan of Action.

The agreements included:
- Flexible Mechanisms:
emissions trading; Joint Implementation (JI); Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
- Carbon sinks:
It was agreed that credit would be granted for broad activities that absorb carbon from the atmosphere or store it
- Financing:
(1) a fund for climate change that supports a series of climate measures; (2) a least-developed-country fund to support National Adaptation Program of Action; and (3) a Kyoto Protocol adaptation fund supported by a CDM levy and voluntary contributions.

Between the two parts of the COP,
the United States
announced they
would not ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
Difficulties to reach
the Bonn Agreements
2001
COP 7 - Marrakesh, Morocco
2007
COP 13 - CMP 3
Bali, Indonesia
2009
COP 15 and CMP5 Copenhagen, Denmark
B
Berlin Mandate
Geneva Declaration
Kyoto Protocol
Buenos Aires
Plan of Action
No declaration
COP 6 I & II -
THE HAGUE & BONN
Bonn Agreement
COP 7 -
MARRAKESH
Marrakesh Accords
COP 8 - NEW DELHI
Delhi Declaration
on Climate Change and Sustainable Development
COP 9 - MILAN
No declaration
COP 10 - BUENOS AIRES
Buenos Aires Programme of Work
on Adaptation
and Response Measures
COP 11 - CMP 1 MONTREAL
COP 12 - CMP2
NAIROBI
Nairobi Work Programme
on Impacts, Vulnerability
and Adaptation
COP 13 - CMP3
BALI
Bali Road Map
COP 14 - CMP4
POZNAN
COP 15 - CMP 5
COPENHAGEN
The Copenhagen
Accords
COP 16 - CMP 6 CANCUN
COP 17 - CMP 7
DURBAN
COP 18 - CMP 8
DOHA
Kyoto II
Cancun Agreements
The COPs' route
Part 1/5 : History of Climate Negotiations
A 13-year-old girl speaking at Rio 92
Our principle interest as CliMates are the international climate negotiations, so let's focus on the UNFCCC!
It was the first

Conference

of the Parties (to the UNFCCC) serving as the

Meeting

of the Parties to the Kyoto

Protocol

(CMP1)
,
which is a working group to discuss the operational details of the Kyoto Protocol.
At this meeting the
AWG-KP
(Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments
for Annex I Parties under
the Kyoto Protocol)
was created.

The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the parties that called for a large "
Green Climate Fund
", and a "Climate Technology Centre" and network.

At its 6th meeting, the CMP agreed that the AWG-KP should aim to complete its work and have its results adopted by the CMP as early as possible and in time to
ensure that there is no gap between the first and second commitment periods of the Kyoto Protocol.
2010
COP 16 and CMP6
Cancun, Mexico
Adoption of the Bali Road Map
The Bali Road Map set up a
two-year process that should have been finalized by a binding agreement in Copenhagen in 2009.


Agreement on a
timeline and a structured negotiation on the post-2012 framework

(the end of the first

commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol) was achieved with the adoption of the Bali Action Plan

The Bali Action Plan also includes :
- the launch of the Adaptation Fund
- decisions on technology transfer and on reducing emissions from deforestation
Participation to the Kyoto Protocol in 2011
Delegates agreed on
principles for the financing of a fund to help the poorest nations cope with the effects of climate change
and approved a mechanism to incorporate forest protection into the efforts of the international community to combat climate change

.
At the COP 7 meeting, negotiators wrapped up the work on the Buenos Aires Plan of Action, finalizing most of the operational details and setting the stage for nations to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.

The main decisions at COP 7 included:
-
Operational rules for international emissions trading
among parties to the Protocol and for the CDM and joint implementation;
-
A compliance regime
that outlined consequences for failure to meet emissions targets but differed depending on the parties to the Protocol.
- Accounting procedures for the flexibility mechanisms;
- A decision to
consider at COP 8
how to achieve a review of the adequacy of commitments that could lead to discussions on future
commitments by developing countries.
The overall
goal
for the COP 15 was to establish an ambitious global climate
agreement for the period after 2012
, when the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol expires.

But the conference
did not achieve
a binding agreement for long-term action.

A 13-paragraph 'political accord' was negotiated by approximately 25 parties including the US and China, but it was only 'noted' by all the other attending countries (i.e. not formally adopted) as it is considered to be an external document, not negotiated within the UNFCCC process.

The accord was notable in that it referred to a collective commitment by developed countries for new and additional resources, including forestry and investments through international institutions, that would approach 30 billion USD for the period 2010–2012.
The Parties agreed
to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change
as soon as possible, no later than 2015, that would go into effect in 2020. For this, the
Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action
was created.
There was also
progress regarding the creation of a Green Climate Fund (GCF)
for which a management framework was adopted. The Fund will distribute 100 billion USD per year to help poor countries adapt to climate change impacts.
The World Bank will hold, transfer and receive the contributions to the GCF. Despite the 30 billion USD and fast-start promised in Copenhagen, no binding agreement has been reached thus far.
2011
COP 17 and CMP7
Durban,South Africa
Decision to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change
More about the history of the COPs:
And now let's do the quiz!
Official website: http://unfccc.int/
Full convention text: http://unfccc.int/not_assigned/b/items/1417.php

For more on the UNFCCC's articles, the subsidiary Bodies (SBI/SBSTA) and the COP (disgested info from UKYCC): http://prezi.com/u1pslq7-fvmy/unfccc-youth-1-the-convention-a-foundation/
Before the COP : Information
During the COP: Negotiations
After the COP: Operationalization
IGOs
Intergovernmental Organizations
Parties - Negotiators
Bureau
Secretariat
Civil Society/Observers
The permanent Subsidiary Bodies
AWG-LCA
ADP
The SBSTA
List of observers
Focus on Youngo
UN Security
Executive Secretary
The Bureau is
elected
at the beginning of
each COP
. It is
responsible
for the whole COP
process
and
supervises
the ongoing work.

Each of the
5 regional groups
is represented by 2 members and the
Alliance of Small Islands Developing States
is represented

by one member.
Technology
Transfer
Financial Mechanisms improvement
Implementation of adaptation
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Established in 1988, it's an
international research network
that provides
essential scientific input on climate change
at the request of the UNFCCC even though it is not part of the organization.

It is actually
the most credible source
on climate change as hundred of scientists from all around the world collaborate and discuss their results together.

Every few years, they publish a report that presents a
comprehensive assessment
of the state
of climate change science, along with recommendations
for the negotiators. The 4th assessment report was published in 2007 and the next one should be released by 2014.
The
presidency of the COP
rotates among the 5 regional groups and is usually held by the Environment Minister of the hosting country. He/she has to
facilitate negotiations and promote an agreement
.
The
Parties
are all the
states which have signed
the Framework Convention on Climate Change.

The
negotiators
are
delegated
by each Party and
represent
the Party's interests during the negotiations.

At the next training, we will see that Parties often negotiate in groups and we will look at how these groups work!
AWG-KP
The
Ad-Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
was created during the COP 11 in Montreal which served as the first Meetings of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP1).

Its task was to
ensure that there would be no gap
between the first commitment period of Kyoto and a post-2012 agreement.

Its
mission was completed
by the
COP 18 in Doha
where it suggested various options regarding the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
The
Ad-Hoc Working on Long-Term Cooperative Action under the Convention
was created under the Bali Action Plan in order to enable the
full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC through

long-term cooperative action
.

The AWG-LCA came to an end at
COP 18
where its work served as a base to reach an
agreement regarding the Loss and Damage
due to climate change in the most vulnerable countries.
The
Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action
was created in Durban (COP 17) to
develop
a protocol or another
legal instrument
for the Convention that is
applicable to all Parties.

The ADP has to complete its work
before

2015
in order to prepare the adoption of a
binding agreement or a legal instrument
at COP21 that will be
implemented in 2020.
Compliance Committee
The Compliance Committee
promotes the Parties' compliance with the Kyoto Protocol
and thus apply the appropriate
sanctions
to the countries that do not respect their commitments.
CDM-EB
The CDM aims at encouraging the installation of
clean technology in developing countries
.

The Annex-B Parties of the
Kyoto Protocol
(developed countries) that engage in such projects are given
certified emission reduction credits
that can be exchanged in the carbon market.
AFB
The
Adaptation Fund Board
supervises and manages the Adaptation Fund. It was established to
finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes

in developing countries
that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

The Adaptation Fund is
financed by a 2%
share of the
proceeds from certified emission reductions
issued by the CDM-EB and others sources.
Adaptation Committee
Created at COP 16 in
Cancun
,
its role is to
promote the implementation of enhanced action on adaptation to climate change
in a coherent manner under the Convention.
Standing Committee
The Standing Committee deals with the all the
finance issues
.

It has 2 principal missions :
-
to improve the coherence
of the various
financial mechanisms
;
-
measuring, reporting

and verifying the support provided to developing country Parties
.

It was created at the same time as the Adaptation Committee, in
Cancun
(COP 16).
Technology Executive Committee
It is the third Committee established by
COP 16
, in
Cancun.


It is mandated to
facilitate the effective implementation of the Technology Mechanism
. To do so, it cooperates with the Climate Technology Centre and Network.
Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
The
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
provides timely
information and advice on scientific
and technological
matters
to the COP.

It does
not carry out research.
It does not sum up all the information we know regarding climate change either, contrary to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The SBI
The
Subsidiary Body for Implementation
supports the work of the COP/CMP through the
assessment and review of the effective implementation
of the Convention decisions and the Kyoto Protocol.
The Vice-Presidents
represent the President
during the COP. For example, they can take consultations on his behalf.
The COP President
The 7 Vice-Presidents
The 2 Chairpersons
They represent the two
Permanent Subsidiary Bodies
, which are the SBSTA and the SBI.
The UNFCCC secretariat provides
organizational support and technical expertise
to the UNFCCC negotiations and institutions. It
also
prepares official documents for the COP
. It is considered an impartial body of international civil servants.
Carbon Market
PART 2/5 : Structure and Process of the Conference of Parties

Mr Yvo de Boer
(2006-2010)
Mrs Christiana Figueres
(2010-...)
provides organizational support
lobbies
supervises the ongoing work
informs
work on Further Commitments for
Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol
work on Long-Term Cooperative Action
under the Convention
work on an another legal instrument under the Convention applicable to all Parties.
inform
-
UNITAR
(United Nations Institute for Training and Research)
-
UNESCO
(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
-
UNEP
(United Nations Environment Program)
-
UNDP
(United Nations Development Program)
-
IMO
(International Maritime Organization)
-
WHO
(World Health Organization)
-
IPCC
(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
IGOs for the COP
UN Security is responsible for
securing UN venues
for negotiators and for civil society.

The Secretariat
protects the right for young people to take action
during UNFCCC meetings. However, youth groups must be approved by the Secretariat in advance.
The Executive Secretary is the leader of the Secretariat.
Like the secretariat he/she does
not take a political position
during the negotiations. However he/she
has a big influence on the process and outcomes
by suggesting solutions, encouraging constructive debate and framing the negotiations.
The current Executive Secretary is Christiana Figueres from Costa Rica.
- RINGO
: Research &
indepedent NGOs

- BINGO
: Business &
indepedent NGOs

- ENGO
: Environmental NGOs

- TUNGO
: Trade Unions NGOs

- YOUNGO
:Youth NGO
s

- Farmers

- Gender groups & Women

- Indigenous people

- Local Governments
The Youth Constituency, recognized provisionally by the UNFCCC secretariat since September 2009, represents the
interest of the young generations
at the UNFCCC process and is committed to support the parties in achieving the objective of the convention.
HOW?
-
Interventions:
YOUNGO can make 2-minute speeches during negotiations at particular points when allowed to do so by the chair.

-
Actions:
The Actions Working Group responds to policies with strategic actions that put pressure on negotiations at key moments, or attract the attention of the international media.

-
Focal points :
There are 2 YOUNGP Focal Points each year. This is one person from the Global North and one person from the Global South. Their job is to cooperate with the UNFCCC Secretariat on YOUNGO issues.

-
Spokescouncil
is the official decision-making body of YOUNGO. It was named after the spokes of a bicycle. If you want to speak or carry out an action on behalf of YOUNGO, it goes through this body.

-
COY (Conference of youth)
usually happens the weekend before the start of negotiations. It's a great opportunity for YOUNGO to come together to meet, share skills, create strategy and have fun.

- Policy Working Group:
The YOUNGP Policy Working Group coordinates between several policy and advocacy groups within YOUNGO. There are Policy WGs on forests, 1.5°C, technology transfer, capacity building, finance and so on.
CliMates will be there as well at COP18!
But who are the actors of a COP, what are their goals and what is their leverage?

If you want to find out, click ahead!
First week
Now that you are an expert in the history of the COPs,
let's see what the UNFCCC meetings actually look like!
Official website: http://unfccc.int/bodies/items/6241.php
Full convention text: http://unfccc.int/not_assigned/b/items/1417.php

For more on the UNFCCC's articles, the subsidiary Bodies (SBI/SBSTA) and the COP (digested info from UKYCC):
- http://prezi.com/u1pslq7-fvmy/unfccc-youth-1-the-convention-a-foundation/
- Engaging in international negotiations: Youth guide => http://sustainus.org/
More about the Structure of the COPs:
And Now, let's do the Quiz!

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?formkey=dFFpeFBGRVR3Uklsd01NNnlZNHRORVE6MQ
Why Alliances?
Regional Alliances?
Part 3/5 : Negotiating Alliances
Interest Alliances
Official website: http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php
Full convention text: http://unfccc.int/not_assigned/b/items/1417.php
- http://prezi.com/u1pslq7-fvmy/unfccc-youth-1-the-convention-a-foundation/
- Engaging in international negotiations: Youth guide => http://sustainus.org/
More about the Negotiating Alliances:
And don't forget to do the Quiz you will receive per mail.
BASIC
Least developed country
Alliance of Small Island States
European Union
Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries
Group of 77
+ China
USA
Umbrella Group
The Umbrella Group is a loose coalition of non-EU developed countries that formed following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Although there is no formal list, the Group is usually made up of Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the US.
Although the U.S. was recently outpaced by China as the world leader in total annual GHG emissions, it still outranks any other major polluter in terms of per capita emissions. According to the EPA, overall U.S. emissions increased by 17% between 1990 and 2007.
The United States is the only Annex I country that has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol, although over 1000 American towns and cities have committed to meeting the Kyoto target of reducing GHG emissions to 7% below 1990 levels by 2012.
In line with the Copenhagen Accord, the U.S. has pledged a 17% reduction in GHG emissions against a 2005 baseline by 2020.
The G77 is a large negotiating alliance of 131 developing countries. This group is responsible for a very small share of global emissions but is likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Occasionally, China joins this coalition during negotiations.

Originally, this group expressed the greatest dismay with the Copenhagen Accord, primarily because it had been negotiated outside of the formal UNFCCC channels—and thus without the input of any G77 members, save China. Since COP15, however, the majority of countries in this block have pledged reductions under the Accord.
The 50 countries defined as Least Developed Countries by the UN regularly work together in the wider UN system. They have become increasingly active in the climate change process, often working together to defend their particular interests, for example with regard to vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.
The 27 members of the European Union meet in private to agree on common negotiating positions. The country that holds the EU Presidency - a position that rotates every six months - then speaks for the European Union and its 27 member states. As a regional organization aiming for economic integration , the European Union itself can be, and is, a Party to the Convention. However, it does not have a separate vote from its members.

As a regional organization, the EU is a Party to both the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Although European member states usually harmonize their negotiating positions, countries still vote separately. Compared with its international counterparts at the UNFCCC, the EU is the 3rd largest GHG polluter, accounting for about 12% of global emissions. Encouragingly, its emissions decreased by 9.3% between 1990 and 2007.

All 15 then-EU member states ratified Kyoto in May of 2002, and the group stands out as the Protocol’s most enthusiastic supporter. The establishment of the EU Emissions Trading System in 2005 and the use of natural gas and nuclear power in some member states have helped the EU to stand out among countries in meeting (or coming close to meeting) Kyoto targets.
 
Under the Copenhagen Accord, the EU pledged to reduce emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. On the condition that other countries also commit to ambitious reductions, the EU has said it would raise its pledged reduction to 30%.
This ad-hoc coalition consists of 43 small island and low-lying coastal countries that share similar sustainable development challenges, including small populations, lack of resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters, and excessive dependence on international trade. AOSIS countries are united by the threat that climate change poses to their survival and frequently adopt a common stance in negotiations. They were the first to propose a draft text during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations calling for cuts in carbon dioxide emissions of 20% from 1990 levels by 2005. Moreover at COP15, AOSIS has acted as the “moral conscience” of the negotiations. 
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an intergovernmental organization of twelve oil-producing countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC has had its headquarters in Vienna since 1965, and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries. Indonesia withdrew in 2008 after it became a net importer of oil, but stated it would likely return if it became a net exporter again.
When the Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997, the economic size of Brazil, South Africa, India and China placed them firmly in the group of developing countries. Since then they have made some dramatic advances collectively they are now producing more the 20% of global GDP, and China has surpassed the US as the single largest global emitter of CO2.

The BASIC negotiating group was formed in 2009 at COP 15 in Copenhagen, when the now ‘emerging powers’ were facing increasing pressure by both developed and developing countries to start taking on serious mitigation responsibilities. BASIC presented a surprisingly well-coordinated position at COP 15, successfully fighting off demands for numerical and legally binding emission reduction targets. The resulting Copenhagen Agreement was a back-room deal between the four BASIC members and the US, in which they committed to voluntary mitigation action.

Since Copenhagen, BASIC ministers have been meeting regularly, issuing peppered statements outlining their climate change position. These statements tend to emphasize the political balance enshrined in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol: first, only Annex I countries are responsible for emission reductions; further, the developed world should provide technology transfer, funding, and capacity building support to the developing world (including BASIC) to enable their mitigation and adaptation efforts. This is commonly known as the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR).

Based on this history, it seemed obvious that BASIC would present itself as a negotiation group with a coordinated position at COP 17. However, that has not been the case. At least officially, they seem to put a lot of effort into NOT appearing as a negotiation group.
- 196 countries have signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, it would be very difficult to find a consensus if every party negotiated individually. It is far more efficient to lead discussions between a few different positions.









- As various countries generally share a point of view in a set of common issues, it is more relevant to form a group in order to get more bargaining power in the negotiations. As the saying goes, "united we stand".

- For example, it is essential for small countries to plead their cause together in order to counterbalance the weight of more powerful countries.
The opening ceremony of the COP 15
So, what is the logic behind the alliances?
During the preparation of the COPs and the conferences themselves, every party defends its interests within one or several groups. The countries almost never negotiate alone - they form alliances. Why?
Since climate is related to geography, one might think that climate change issues are the same in adjacent countries.

For example, small islands are all more or less all concerned by sea level rise. Likewise, all mountain countries have to deal with the melting of the ice caps.


However, alliances are usually not made on geographical basis. Indeed, climate change is not tackled in the same way in geographically similar countries.








The parties' positions in the negotiations depend above all on their socio-economic context, their degree of industrialization, their financial means and their natural resources. For example, an arid rich petroleum-exporting country wouldn't have the same economic interests - and thereby the same position - about the energy transition as an arid developing country suffering from energy scarcity.
=> Alliances are above all based on socio-economic interests.
OPEC
AOSIS
LDC
is the acronym for Brazil, South Africa, China and India; often referred to as ‘emerging powers’ or ‘major economies’ in new UNFCCC lingo
mitigation
mitigation and adaptation
no mitigation
Why learn technical terms and concepts ?
Part 4/5: Technical Terms and Concepts used during the Negotiations
Mitigation simply means
reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in order to limit climate change
. This has been a central element of the Convention since its outset.

There are many proposals for mitigation, but a central question is
how to make it “measurable, reportable, and verifiable.


It is important that mitigation happens in line with the evolution of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC's) assessments of climate change.
Mitigation
Targets and Timetables
An important subtopic of mitigation is "Targets and Timetables": The leading IPCC assessment suggests not only
2050 reduction targets of at least 80% from 1990
emissions, but recommends reductions of
25-40% from 1990 levels by 2020.

Negotiating a 2020 target will be key to a post-Kyoto agreement. At COP 14, the EU settled on a target of 20% by 2020, disappointing many developing countries and NGOs. The EU agreed to raise its target to 30% if other nations could agree to a post-2012 protocol.
Adaptation can be defined as adjustment of natural, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects, which moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.

Despite mitigation efforts, climate change is an irreversible phenomenon, and has already revealed itself through various impacts.
Greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere many years after they are emitted, and therefore more global temperature and sea level rise, and increased intensity of extreme weather events are almost inevitable in the XXIst century. As a result of climate change, millions of people, mostly in developing countries, will also face shortages of food and water, and greater health risks. The IPCC has found that these changes go far beyond our coping capacity.
This is why mitigation measures are not enough and adaptation is necessary.

By 2030 the UNFCCC Secretariat estimates that developing countries will need between $28 and $67 billion per year to adapt to climate change.

Adaptation is not only a financial issue, but a multifaceted “struggle.” Adaptation measures must include strategies at the local, regional, national, and international levels which include an assess vulnerability to climate change, appropriate technology, adaptation capacity and government
action.
Adaptation
Technology Transfer
Climate change confronts the world with a major technical challenge to reduce GHG emissions.

The UNFCCC is concerned with how to enhance and scale up the development and transfer of climate-friendly technology for mitigation and adaptation in a post-Kyoto agreement.
This is essential to permitting progress on mitigation and adaptation.

Funding and
intellectual property rights
are contentious issues within technology transfer.
REDD - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation
and Degradation
LULUCF - Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry
Millions of people depend on forest resources for their survival and livelihoods. Nevertheless, there is a debate going on among industrialized countries, the private sector, and indigenous peoples on how
to best mitigate emissions from deforestation and land use changes.

The central challenge for the
REDD
policy is to provide incentives that ensure the sustainable management of forests, benefit communities and forest users, and reduce emissions.

LULUCF
is closely related to REDD but encompasses a wider range of land-use topics that go beyond forest issues, such as food security, energy generation, and wood production, e.g. the use of cropland, grassland, and wetlands.
A tradable-permit system
is one in which a greenhouse gases emitter (a firm or country under obligation to limit its total air pollution emissions to a specified level) can buy/sell permission to emit a certain amount of emissions from/to other emitters (who are below/above their limit). The market price of these permits (called 'pollution credits') reflects the marginal cost of emission reduction and gives an emitter the incentive to install and manage a cost-effective pollution control system as an income producing asset.

Emissions trading is
viewed by economists as a way to potentially reduce the cost of compliance.
The European Union and Australia are already using emissions trading to meet their Kyoto targets, and many U.S. states and Canadian provinces have begun regional trading schemes.

As with CDM,
many people criticize emissions trading
and believe that it is not an effective or just mechanism to reduce emissions, notably
because it is difficult to determine the volume of emission credits that should be granted to each country.
Emissions Trading
Sectoral Approach
The sectoral approach is
a mitigation approach
favored by some parties that would
allow countries to mitigate emissions by sector,
such as power generation or transportation,
rather than by the use of national targets.

One type of sectoral targets is SNLTs, or Sectoral No Lose Targets.
SNLTs would serve as voluntary targets taken on by developing countries to reduce emissions in some of their fastest growing and highest emitting sectors,
even if they lack the ability and resources to engage in economy wide measures and national targets.
Annex I, Annex II,
Non Annex Parties
The Kyoto Protocol categorizes countries into
three groups depending on their ability to reduce emissions
Annex I: These are the industrialized country members of the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and countries with economies in transition including the Russian Federation, the Baltic States, and several Central and Eastern European States. Under the Kyoto Protocol, these countries have the greatest responsibility to reduce GHG emissions.
=>
http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/annex_i/items/2774.php

Annex II: Annex II Parties consist of the OECD members of Annex I, but not the economies in transition. They are required to provide financial resources to enable developing countries to undertake emissions reduction activities and adapt to adverse effects of climate change
=>
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1348.php

Non Annex I Parties: These are developing countries, many of which are especially vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Non Annex I Parties include countries with lowlying coastal areas and those prone to desertification and drought. The Convention emphasizes activities to address special needs of these vulnerable countries, such as insurance and technology transfer.
=>
http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/non_annex_i/items/2833.php
As you already know it, the CDM is a major policy component of the Kyoto Protocol. It
allows wealthy nations to meet some of their emissions reduction targets by funding GHG mitigation projects in developing countries, where mitigation costs are lower.

There is much debate as to whether CDM projects actually result in emission reductions. According to the UNFCCC, “the projects must qualify through a rigorous and public registration and issuance process designed to ensure real, measurable and verifiable emission reductions that are additional to what would have occurred without the project.” It is often argued that this does not happen, and that many CDM projects receive funding even though they would have been implemented even without the funding. Furthermore, many see CDM as a way for wealthy countries to avoid taking responsibility for lowering their own emissions.
CDM -
Clean Development Mechanism
The Rio Declaration states: “In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities.

The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.


Similar language exists in the UNFCCC: parties should act to protect the climate system “on the basis of equality and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”
The Principle of
Common But Differentiated
Responsibilities
"In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by states according to their capabilities.

Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage,
lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
"
The Precautionary Principle
Carbon Sequestration is
the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir.

Reforestation
is a common way to sequester carbon. This is why many emissions offset projects offer to replant trees in a forest.
Carbon Sequestration
Vulnerability is defined by the IPCC as “the
degree to which a system is susceptible to cope with adverse effects of climate change,
including climate variability and extremes".

It depends on :
- the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change
- the variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity.
Vulnerability
Resilience
Resilience is the
capacity of an ecosystem to respond to a perturbation or disturbance by resisting damage and recovering quickly.

Such perturbations and disturbances can include natural disasters such as fires, flooding, windstorms, and insect population explosions, and those induced by human activities such as deforestation and the introduction of exotic plant or animal species.

Disturbances of sufficient magnitude or duration can profoundly affect an ecosystem and may force an ecosystem to reach a threshold beyond which a different regime of processes and structures is predominant.
World Organization of Environment
For instance, for environmental vulnerability, look at this link:
http://www.vulnerabilityindex.net/EVI_Indicators.htm
More about Resilience Capacity :
http://brr.berkeley.edu/rci/
Official website:
http://unfccc.int/parties_and_observers/parties/negotiating_groups/items/2714.php

Engaging in international negotiations: Youth guide => http://sustainus.org/
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/emissions-trading.html#ixzz29drRAUca
Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration 1992 states that:
In some legal systems, as in the law of the European Union, the application of the precautionary principle has been made a statutory requirement.
http://www.unep.org/environmentalgovernance/PerspectivesonRIO20/PrimeMinisterofMalaysia/tabid/55555/Default.aspx

http://archive.unu.edu/inter-linkages/docs/IEG/Charnovitz.pdf
At the UN Conference in Copenhagen, France proposed to set up a World Organization of Environment.

It would potentially fullfil two main goals:

- it would be an anchor for the 500-odd multilateral environmental agreements that are currently dispersed, said the ministry.

- such an organization could also help implement the agreement that emerges
More about it:
More about Technical Terms and Concepts

Measuring vulnerability : http://www.unep.org/ourplanet/imgversn/103/17_mea.htm

A World Environment Organization :
http://archive.unu.edu/inter-linkages/docs/IEG/Charnovitz.pdf
Here is the Quiz
:

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?formkey=dE13T0FJR0F4XzJLbUMxSGxyeFkwdUE6MQ#gid=0
Thanks to
Now that you know everything about the history and the structure of COPs, and that you had a look on the negotiating alliances, you're almost ready to negotiate like real negotiators.

Nevertheless, knowing the system is not enough to do so: It is time to have a look at the main concepts and terms used during the negotiations !

Once you get to know them, you will be able to debate within a common theoretical framework, which is essential in order to
optimize the quality and the outcomes of the negotiations.

So let's have a look at the main concepts and technical terms used during the COPs !
Part 5/5 : Different Ways Forward...
More about the International CliMate Summit:
- The Draft of the conference : "A Call for Action" https://docs.google.com/document/d/1JyaLzuIV535RDNyT6Z64JZK-g6FGJg7XdBtEuie_l5w/edit

- The repartition in the Working Groups : https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AuffWhyLHPfhdDRFOWgxYUdOZG9aVzVkX09ubmZPMkE#gid=0
No Quiz this time, just prepare yourself for the conference and don't forget the values of CliMates ! ;)
Values of CliMates
Be prepared to negotiate: learn about the draft
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1JyaLzuIV535RDNyT6Z64JZK-g6FGJg7XdBtEuie_l5w/edit
What is the CliMates International Summit ?
You are now inviting to read and comment on the draft 1.0 :
Knowledge
CliMates gathers students that are highly qualified in the subject matter, and trains them to address and anticipate emerging climate change issues.
Innovation
Collaboration
Credibility
CliMates seeks new ways of research and negotiation, encouraging ingenuity in trying to solve global issues.
CliMates highlights the benefits of sharing experiences and ideas, and materializes this in
a collaborative research system.
CliMates relies on a highly qualified student network supported by renowned researchers, enhancing the depth and integrity of its publications of CliMates' student solutions.
Collaboration is a mutually beneficial and well-defined relationship entered into by two or more organizations to achieve results they are more likely to achieve together than alone.
Quality or power of inspiring
belief
“Innovation is not a single action but a total process of interrelated sub processes. It is not just the conception of a new idea, nor the invention of a new device, nor the development of a new market. The process is all these things acting in an integrated fashion.” (Trott, 1998)
Human faculty resulting from interpreted information; understanding that germinates from combination of data, information, experience, and individual interpretation.
So, live up to the expectations :
study the content of the Draft 1.0 and prepare yourself for the International CliMates Summit
So, don't forget:
- The CliMates International Summit is not a UN meeting where States negotiate on fixed positions, but gathers students searching together solutions to a common issue
- Try to understand the problems and constraints of the others (For instance look at the CliMates Profile of the other delegations
http://www.studentclimates.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=122&Itemid=685)
So, be imaginative and creative !
So, try to create solutions that are both ambitious and feasible. Many will expect us to be head-in-the-clouds idealists. Prove them wrong !
What the Summit is not
The Summit is not a COP.
As you know, "COP"

stands for "Conference Of the Parties". You are not a part of a government that has ratified the UNFCCC, so you are not considered a Party.

The Summit is not a simulation (Model United Nations).
You will not be a fictional government representative, working on an imaginary scenario. You will intervene in the Summit as yourselves, students from many countries of the world, discussing innovative solutions to climate change.
The Summit is the momentous conclusion to a year-long cycle of research and collaboration, where visions on climate change are combined to gather and brainstorm unique ideas on how to solve this crisis. Surrounded by experts, high-level officials, and civil service organizations, we will work to get the word out about CliMates and elaborate a "Call for Action" that will encompass what we stand for and what we will fight for after the Summit. The Summit is the end of a phase, but mostly the beginning of something much bigger !

Delegates should be well aware of the composure of their country (look at your own CliMates Country Profile), wishing to collaborate and find common solutions with other students of various nationalities and backgrounds (look at their Profiles!)
If you have ideas to make the negotiation and facilitation processes more efficient and innovative, please share them with research@climates.fr
Day 1 : A Sectorial Approach
to Climate Change

Day 3 : International Cooperation
on Climate Change

Day 2: Government and
Local Community Actions

Recommendation
Commitments are
students solutions
which can be research or action-oriented solutions that youth and students can implement, and that could be part of CliMates' projects and strategies in the future. They can be individual projects, projects that could be led by small groups of CliMates, or projects for the whole association.

=> These answer the question
"what can we do?"
(and "How can we do?") in the
Draft One. 
Commitment
A recommendation is something advised or suggested.

=> These answer to the question "
Who should cooperate with us ?"
and
" What do we recommend to decisions-makers"
in the
Draft one.
Example of commitments at Rio+20 about Climate change : http://www.uncsd2012.org/index.php?page=view&type=12&menu=153&nr=371&theme=8
What about Finance?
Because finance affects all areas of DraftOne, try to think about it and find new ways of funding.
The final declaration of Rio underlines in its article 267 the role played by innovative financing:
"We consider that innovative financing mechanisms can make a positive contribution in assisting developing countries to mobilize additional resources for financing for development on a voluntary basis. Such financing should supplement and not be a substitute for traditional sources of financing. While recognizing the considerable progress in innovative sources of financing for development, we call for scaling-up of present initiatives, where appropriate."

Examples of Innovative financing mechanisms:
http://leadinggroup.org/rubrique274.html
More specific:
http://leadinggroup.org/article1115.html
http://leadinggroup.org/rubrique314.html
http://leadinggroup.org/rubrique266.html
Innovative financing
Finance
The Convention has established financial mechanisms for developed countries to provide financial resources to developing nations. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a global partnership among 178 countries, international institutions, NGOs, and the private sector that provides grants related to issues of environmental sustainability. The GEF in 1995 was entrusted to be the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC. In regards to financial mechanisms, the Bali Action Plan called for the need for adequate, predictable, and sustainable means of funding, positive incentives and innovative means to fund developing country projects, and mobilization of public and private sector funding.
Food Security
Biofuels
Water scarcity
Vulnerability
Extreme Weather Events
Energy access
Energy efficiency
Life cycle assessment
Renewable Energy and
clean technologies
Smart Grids
Energy transition
Holistic way
Green Carrers/Jobs
Green jobs are linked with green business: create jobs and activities by protecting the environment. But should we only promote green business or also change what already exists and pollutes?
Remember that being innovative is not only thinking about new things, but also recycling what's already out there to make it work better!
Public-Private Partnerships
Risk / Hazard
Prevention
Evaluation
Low Carbon
Development
Carbon Disclosure Project
Green economy
Objective 2°C
Tax on carbone
Responsability
Cap and Trade
GDP/ Economic Growth
Youth Official Delegates
IPCS Model
The World Health Organization defines food security as having three facets: food availability, food access, and food use. Food availability is having available sufficient quantities of food on a consistent basis. Food access is having sufficient resources, both economic and physical, to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Food use is the appropriate use based on knowledge of basic nutrition and care, as well as adequate water and sanitation.
The FAO (UN's Food and Agriculture Organization) adds a fourth facet: the stability of the first three dimensions of food security over time.
More about it
Look at our partner website http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Intellectual-Property,Agriculture-and-Global-Food-Security
http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Moving-away-from-business-as-usual-in-agriculture
For those who speak french: http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Securite-alimentaire-en-Afrique-subsaharienne-faut-il-une-rupture-dans-le-modele-agricole
More about it:
http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Water-and-Biofuels-in-2030
http://www.iddri.org/Evenements/Conferences/Global-Opportunities-for-Sustainable-Bioethanol-Lessons-from-Brazil
A biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security.

First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. These are generally produced from grains high in sugar or starch fermented into bioethanol; or seeds that which are pressed into vegetable oil used in biodiesel. Common first-generation biofuels include vegetable oils, biodiesel, bioalcohols, biogas, solid biofuels, syngas.

Second-generation biofuels are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Common second-generation biofuels include vegetable oils, biodiesel, bioalcohols, biogas, solid biofuels, and syngas. Research continues on second-generation biofuels including biohydrogen, biomethanol, DMF, Bio-DME, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohols and wood diesel.

Third-generation biofuels are produced from extracting oil of algae – sometimes referred to as “oilgae”. Its production is supposed to be low cost and high-yielding – giving up to nearly 30 times the energy per unit area as can be realized from current, conventional ‘first-generation’ biofuel feedstocks.
More about it :
http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Two-key-concepts-of-the-society-climate-change-interface-vulnerability-and-adaptation
http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Adaptation-to-climate-change-and-industrial-vulnerability
Vulnerability is defined by the IPCC as “the
degree to which a system is susceptible to cope with adverse effects of climate change,
including climate variability and extremes".

It depends on :
- the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change
- the variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity.
More about it:

http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/scarcity.shtml
water scarcity as: the point at which the aggregate impact of all users impinges on the supply or quality of water under prevailing institutional arrangements to the extent that the demand by all sectors, including the environment, cannot be satisfied fully.
Map: Freshwater availability, cubic metres per person and per year 2007

http://www.iddri.org/Projets/Seminaire-Developpement-durable-et-economie-de-l-environnement/Confronting-scarcity-Managing-water,-energy-and-land-for-inclusive-and-sustainable-growth
http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Climate,-Trade-and-Water-A-Grand-Coalition
Extreme weather includes unusual, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range[when?] that has been seen in the past.The most commonly used definition of extreme weather is based on an event's climatological distribution: Extreme weather occurs only 5% or less of the time. According to climate scientists and meteorological researchers, extreme weather events have been rare. An increase in extreme weather events has been attributed to man-made global warming, with a 2012 study indicated an increasing threat from extreme weather.
More about it:
Global Climate Risk Index 2011
http://germanwatch.org/klima/cri11.pdf
Should we define it as “access to clean, reliable and affordable energy services for cooking and heating, lighting, communications and productive uses” as the THE SECRETARY-GENERAL’S ADVISORY GROUP ON ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE (AGECC) did?
One of the challenges facing the global development community is that there is no consensus on exactly what energy access means. It is useful to consider incremental levels of energy access and the benefits these can provide. For the sake of simplicity, one can consider three levels of access to energy (See Exhibit 1).
More about it:
http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/AGECCsummaryreport%5B1%5D.pdf
Energy efficiency improvements refer to a reduction in the energy used for a given service (heating, lighting, etc.) or level of activity. The reduction in the energy consumption is usually associated with technological changes, but not always since it can also result from better organisation and management or improved economic conditions in the sector ("non-technical factors").
More about it:
http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/energy_efficiency_policies_around_the_world_review_and_evaluation/1_introduction/1175.asp
http://www.iddri.org/Themes/Urban-Fabric/Task-Force-on-Energy-Efficiency-and-Urban-Development
More about it:
http://www.iddri.org/Publications/2-C-the-history-of-a-policy-science-nexus
A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave (i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling). LCAs can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by:

Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases;
Evaluating the potential impacts associated with identified inputs and releases;
Interpreting the results to help make a more informed decision.
More about it :
http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx1164xPA-guidelines_sLCA.pdf
A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
More about it: http://www.energyfuturecoalition.org/files/webfmuploads/EFC_Report/EFCReport.pdf
http://www.smartgrids.eu/
More about it:
http://www.iea.org/etp/
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Energy_transitions
http://www.energietransitiemodel.nl/?locale=en
Clean technology includes recycling, renewable energy (wind power, solar power, biomass, hydropower, biofuels), information technology, green transportation, electric motors, green chemistry, lighting, Greywater, and many other appliances that are now more energy efficient. It is a means to create electricity and fuels, with a smaller environmental footprint and minimise pollution.

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.
Holism (from λος holos, a Greek word meaning all, whole, entire, total), is the idea that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties, should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems somehow function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts.

Reductionism is often viewed as the opposite of holism. Reductionism in science says that a complex system can be explained by reduction to its fundamental parts. For example, the processes of biology are reducible to chemistry and the laws of chemistry are explained by physics.
A green job, also called a green-collar job is, according to the United Nations Environment Program, "work in agricultural, manufacturing, research and development (R&D), administrative, and service activities that contribute(s) substantially to preserving or restoring environmental quality. Specifically, but not exclusively, this includes jobs that help to protect ecosystems and biodiversity; reduce energy, materials, and water consumption through high efficiency strategies; de-carbonize the economy; and minimize or altogether avoid generation of all forms of waste and pollution.
Public–private partnership (PPP) describes a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.

PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project.

A typical PPP example would be a hospital building financed and constructed by a private developer and then leased to the hospital authority.
“To prevent” literally means “to keep something from happening”
It is linked with the precautionary principle, principle 15 of the Rio Declaration 1992 which states that:

"In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by states according to their capabilities.

Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation."
More about it: http://www.syr.edu/gradschool/pdf/assessmentpdfs/Evaluation%20Defined.pdf
According to the Web Center for Social Research, evaluation is : " a systematic acquisition and assessment of information with the generic goal of providing useful feedback to a specific of audience"
The growing presence of the 2°C target resulted from the joint efforts of the scientific and political spheres to give structure to the debate, each enriching and exchanging with the other. This progression gave the 2°C target a meaning that varied according to the different contexts in which it was used. It thus became the interface between mitigation and adaptation, between scientific and political discourses and between the interests of the Parties.

At Copenhagen, the Parties agree on the 2°C target, which was not only the most readable formulation but also the vaguest and the least directly binding formulation for long term targets
"For the purposes of the Green Economy Initiative, UNEP has developed a working definition of a green economy as one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. In its simplest expression, a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive.

Practically speaking, a green economy is one whose growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. These investments need to be catalyzed and supported by targeted public expenditure, policy reforms and regulation changes. This development path should maintain, enhance and, where necessary, rebuild natural capital as a critical economic asset and source of public benefits, especially for poor people whose livelihoods and security depend strongly on nature." 5UNEP)
More about it:
http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/AboutGEI/FrequentlyAskedQuestions/tabid/29786/Default.aspx
http://www.unep.org/civil-society/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=MO1JM6CTZao=&tabid=3343&language=en-US
A carbon tax is an Pigovian tax levied on the carbon content of fuels. It is a form of carbon pricing. Carbon is present in every hydrocarbon fuel (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) and is released as carbon dioxide (CO2) when they are burnt. In contrast, non-combustion energy sources—wind, sunlight, hydropower, and nuclear—do not convert hydrocarbons to CO2. CO2 is a heat-trapping "greenhouse" gas.

Scientists have pointed to the potential effects on the climate system of releasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere (see scientific opinion on global warming). Since GHG emissions caused by the combustion of fossil fuels are closely related to the carbon content of the respective fuels, a tax on these emissions can be levied by taxing the carbon content of fossil fuels at any point in the product cycle of the fuel.

Carbon taxes offer a potentially cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. From an economic perspective, carbon taxes are a type of Pigovian tax.. They help to address the problem of emitters of greenhouse gases not facing the full (social) costs of their actions. Carbon taxes are a regressive tax, in that they disproportionately affect low-income groups. The regressive nature of carbon taxes can be addressed by using tax revenues to favour low-income groups..
A Low Carbon Development strategy is a long-term plan of action that integrates national mitigation and development objectives.
More about it :
http://prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com/w/images/5/58/WRI.pdf
https://www.cdproject.net/en-US/Pages/HomePage.aspx
The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) is an independent not-for-profit organization working to drive greenhouse gas emissions reduction and sustainable water use by business and cities.
They provide a transformative global system for thousands of companies and cities to measure, disclose, manage and share environmental information. When provided with the necessary information, market forces can be a major cause of change. Working with the world’s largest investors, businesses and governments, CDP is uniquely positioned to catalyze action towards a more sustainable economy.
The Rio Declaration states the concept of historical responsability which is linked with the Common but differentiated responsibility principle : “In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, states have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.”

=> Is there only an hostorical responsability? what other type of responsability can be taken in account?
A regulatory system that is meant to reduce certain kinds of emissions and pollution and to provide companies with a profit incentive to reduce their pollution levels faster than their peers. Under a cap-and-trade program, a limit (or "cap") on certain types of emissions or pollutions is set, and companies are permitted to sell (or "trade") the unused portion of their limits to other companies that are struggling to comply.
More about it:
Establish a youth delegate programme: http://social.un.org/index/Youth/Whatcanyoudo/Establishayouthdelegateprogramme.aspx
http://uncsdmajorgroupforchildrenandyouth.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/official-youth-delegates-for-rio_lobbyguide_final.pdf
http://www.unyouth.com/
While the role of a youth delegate varies within delegations, most youth delegates draft and deliver a statement to the Third Committee of the GA on an issue relating to, or of importance to, youth. Furthermore by cooperating with the missions of their countries and through attending a range of meetings, receptions and informal negotiations youth delegates have the possibility to give input to deliberations about youth issues at the UN GA, in particular the resolutions on “policies and programmes involving youth.
More about it:
http://icpsmodel.org/science
The ICPS Model is an integral solution to finally achieve sustainability.

Itts goal is to change the world’s “operating system” via an integral approach called the “ICPS Model” (Integral Cooperation Platform for Sustainability Model). Such Model is a global-scale scientifically-devised ACTION PLAN. It was multi-disciplinarily designed to fast-track the world into a Sustainable Development pathway.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all officially recognized final goods and services produced within a country in a given period.GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living; GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income (See Standard of living and GDP).

Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP.

Is Economic growth a still a sign of progress? Can we think a new definition of economic growth? of progress?

What about the use of new universal sustainable develpment indicators? Is it possible to achieve it? Are the Sustainable development goals a way to escape the diffuculties to elaborate a new indicator which occurs to 193 states?
More about it:
http://www.earthsummit2012.org/conference/themes/sdgoalsintro
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/indisd-mg2001.pdf
http://www.sustainablemeasures.com/indicators
http://www.ieep.eu/assets/443/sdi_review.pdf
The Energy transition is the pathway from our actual energy system to a clean energy one.

The 2012 edition of Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP 2012) shows clearly that a technological transformation of the energy system is still possible, despite current trends. The integrated use of key existing technologies would make it possible to reduce dependency on imported fossil fuels or on limited domestic resources, decarbonise electricity, enhance energy efficiency and reduce emissions in the industry, transport and buildings sectors. (Look at the IEA Website below!)
Risk is the potential that a chosen action or activity (including the choice of inaction) will lead to a loss (an undesirable outcome). The notion implies that a choice having an influence on the outcome exists (or existed). Potential losses themselves may also be called "risks". Almost any human endeavor carries some risk, but some are much more risky than others.

A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm; however, once a hazard becomes "active", it can create an emergency situation. A hazard does not exist when it is not happening. A hazardous situation that has come to pass is called an incident. Hazard and vulnerability interact together to create risk.
What the Summit is
A.Agriculture and Aquaculture
B.Water Management in the Context of Climate Change
C.Energy
A.Implementing Low Carbon (re) Development Plans
B.Linking Adaptation Policies and development
C.Raising Public Awareness and Mobilizing Civil Society
A.Attributing Responsibility after Kyoto
B.Reshaping the Negotiation Process
2012
COP 18 and CMP8
Doha, Qatar
Participation to Kyoto II (2013 - 2020)
In Doha, most
European countries, Turkey and Australia
(dark green countries on the map) have commited to reduce their emissions
a
ccording to specific targets, which gives rise to a second period for the
Kyoto Protocol
(2013-2020).

Nevertheless, this
second commitment period
does not regard some of the biggest emitters that have signed the first Protocol in 1997 : the United States refuses to ratify the agreement (as it did in 1997), Canada left the Protocol in 2011 and Russia, Japan and New Zealand do not have targets anymore, contrary to the first period.

Based on the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action, an agreement on the
Loss and Damage
due to climate change was reached in favor of the most vulnerable countries.
COP 19 - CMP 9
WARSAW
Coming soon...
Full transcript