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Java Trench

Presentation on Java Trench

Katie Dorsher

on 16 February 2011

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Transcript of Java Trench

Java Trench By: Katie Dorsher and Lane Galvin Structure of the Earth: What is the structure of the Earth? Plate Movement: What happens at plate boundaries? The Earths crust is on top because it is the least dense of all the layers. Density is a big part of the Earth's structure. If the layer is less dense then it will rise, or in this case, it will float since the Earth's crust floats on the Earth's mantle, which is more dense than the crust. As you go deeper into the Earth's layers, the temperature rises. This is because the molecules are moving fast and creating lots of heat energy. It becomes denser the deeper you go because when the heat rises, it eventualy cools and sinks back to the core of the earth, where it is most dense. We know that the Earth is made up of different densities because, of seismic waves. Seismic waves travel through the interior of the earth whenever an earthquake occurs. Certain waves can travel through liquids, solids, and gases, while other waves can only travel through solids. This is how we know that the mantle is made up of viscous liquid, the outer core is liquid, and the inner core is solid. We know this because of the 2 types of seismic waves, P-waves and S-waves. We know where plate boundaries are by studying the Earth's geologic acticity, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. If there are many eruptions or earthquakes in one spot or in a line, that is most likely where a plate boundary is located. We know that the Earth's crust is moving because of geologic activity, such as earthquakes. also by trenches, mountian ranges, and rifts. For example, the Java Trench. This trench is caused by 2 plates colliding. One plate goes under the other one to create the trench. Another example of plate movement is mountian ranges, such as the appalachian mountains. These mountains are also caused by plates colliding. Instead of one going under when they collide, the edges that collide go upward to create the mountains and/or volcanoes, but in this case, mountains. These are 2 of the many places of evidence that Earth's crust moving. Volcanoes: What can volcanoes tell us about plate interactions? The volcanoes near the Java Trench are stratovolcanoes. We know this because the volcanoes near this region are know for being explosive, and stratovolcanoes are explosive. Also, stratovolcanoes are caused by plates moving together and that is how the Java Trench is formed. It is an explosive volcano that spits out ash and can remain active for a long time. Java Trench Convection: What causes plates to move? Convection happens in the Earth's mantle. Convection carries energy within a fluid. A convection current is the process of warm liquid rising and cool liquid sinking. Convection currents are the causes of geologic activity and plate movement. The magma in the Earths mantle is different temperatures depending on where it is. The hot magma rises to the Earths crust causing it to spread at one end of the plate while the other end is then pushed into another plate causing plate movement. Then the hot magma, as it becomes cooler and more dense, begins to sink. This is shown in the picture to the right. The hotter magma is less dense than the cooler magma which is why it rises while the cool magma sinks. Convection happening in the Earths mantle causes the earths plates to move. Plate Boundaries: What geologic activity happens at the plate boundaries? The plates invovled with the Java Trench are the Eurasian plate, Australian plate, and the Philippine plate. All three of these plates are colliding to create the Java Trench. This plate boundary is convergent. Oceanic crust and continential crust collided to form a trench. The oceanic crust went under the continential crust because it is more dense. This process creates the trench.
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