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MUSI 2520-Powerpoint Rap In Context to the Hood
Transcript of MUSI 2520-Powerpoint Rap In Context to the Hood
First Nations Policing
So what exactly is First Nations Policing?
Types of First
Nations Policing (FNPP)
Recruitment , Cross Cultural Training & Crime Prevention
HISTORY OF COLONIALISM
1600’s settelers arrive
1700’s colonialism really starts
1800’s treaties begin to be formed
Late 1800’s-1900’s full force racism and discrimination towards indigenous people
1940-1960 Indigenous activism
1960 is when RCMP start withdrawing themselves from policing indigenous communities in Ontario and Quebec
1970’s-Present programs are in place to have Indigenous police forces or Indigenous people in federal provincial police forces
RECRUITMENT OF FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE
Two programs run by the RCMP:
ABORIGINAL CADET DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (ACDP)
-Directed at Aboriginal people who lack basic entry requirements who want to pursuea career in policing
-Helps to overcome identified deficiencies (structural barriers)
-Provide financial support – given 2yrs to meet RCMP basic entry requirements – if
successful then go to training academy in Regina (assessed at training academy then return to detachment in their home area).
ABORIGINAL PRE-CADET TRAINIG PROGRAM (APTP)
3 wks, Summer program for Aboriginal youth
8 wks, training program in Regina
Recruitment is specific to each province which provides programs to attract first nations peoples into the police force
Missing Aboriginal Women Epidemic
Services in Western Canada:
Western Canada- 271 communities covered under FNPP agreements.
British Columbia- currently 58 agreements covering 143 communities
Alberta- 25 agreements that cover 27 communities
Saskatchewan- 35 agreements covering 51 communities
Manitoba- 11 agreements that cover 50 communities
Northern Canada- 3 FNPP agreements.
2 agreements in Yukon that cover 12 communities
1 agreement in the Northwest Territories, covering a
total of 10 communities
0 Nunavut communities currently have agreements in
place or coverage under the FNPP.
Non-Mainstream Rappers vs Mainstream Rappers
FNPP can be broken down to
two main categories:
Self-Administered Police Services (SAs)
Community Tripartite Agreements (CTA)
By : Bana Ghilazghi
Self-Administered Police Services (SAs):
Are police services that are managed and governed by a First Nation (also called First Nation Administered). Much like a small-town department, the First Nation is responsible for developing, managing and administering all aspects of the police service, although several larger regional Aboriginal police services have emerged.
Community Tripartite Agreements (CTAs)
: Occur when a First Nation contracts with a police service—primarily the RCMP—to provide policing services. The contracting police service is expected to deploy Aboriginal officers to work on the First Nation.
CENTRAL AND ATLANTIC AGREEMENTS
Currently there are 54 First Nation Policing Policies in place
Ontario has 12 agreements
Quebec has 21 agreements
The Atlantic provinces in Canada have 21
Community Policing & Crime Prevention
Part of community policing initiatives many police services have partnered with aboriginal organizations.
Programs developed in collaboration with chiefs, band councils, and community residents
Police Athletic League for Students
offered by 6 Nations Police (Ontario) – for high risk youth, targets youth 6-12 yrs.
i.e. TORONTO POLICE SERVICE -
Aboriginal Peacekeeping Unit
which is composed solely of Aboriginal officers
Aboriginal Policing Bureau (OPP)
(APB) provides dedicated support and resources to ensure that the OPP develops and maintains
the ability to appropriately respond to Aboriginal issues.
capacity building to contribute to effective First Nations policing and healthy Aboriginal communities.
Foster positive relationships
improved capacity for relationships that can identify, mediate and assist in resolving potential conflict situations
Provide administrative support to First Nations communities that have an Ontario First Nations Policing Agreement (OFNPA)
Native awareness training
Effective native awareness training for OPP employees, police partners and community partners
culturally-based community and youth initiatives
Provincial Liaison Team (PLT) Program
key part of police planning and response to major events and conflict situations.
CROSS CULTURAL TRAINING
To train police officers on the culture of minorities, all new recruits go through this training
Not much time is dedicated to this
Idea is to rid the police force from prejudices against Indigenous people
Tries to give officers more of an understanding about Indigenous people
Doesn’t really work or make sense
According to Chapter 5 of the 2014 Spring Report of the Auditor General of Canada
It was found that the delivery of the First Nations Policing Program had several downfalls including:
Lack of First Nations Policing Program being accessible and transparent
Funds having achieved weak/limited enhancements in First Nations Policing Programs
Evident lack of First Nations involvement in the negotiations of applicable agreements
Public Safety Canada found no substantial assurance that policing facilities in First Nations communities were being adequately delivered but rather selectively
lack of clarity in the agreements and among the involved parties
According to 2014 Spring Report of the Auditor General of Canada (ch.5 First Nations Policing Program) , the First Nations Policing Program funding has not changed significantly between the 2007–08 and the 2012–13 fiscal years.
All though, during the same duration during there were 196 agreement renewals, 23 agreement terminations, and 22 new agreements, across all provinces
In addition the terminated agreements were not necessarily replaced by new agreements, such is the case with the Band Constable Program agreements
Also worth noting is that since 2006, 16 First Nations communities that had passed official Band Council Resolutions to join the First Nations Policing Program had been formally notified that they were not able to join or were still waiting for a reply to their applications
According to Department officials this is due to lack of funding not provide to expand the programs
The number of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls in Canada is disproportionately high, at approx. 1181 cases according to an RCMP report which was found far from true, Minister of Indigenous Affairs stated cases are as high as 4000
Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) research indicates that, between 2000 and 2008, there were approx. 582 cases Aboriginal women and girls represented approximately 10% of all female homicides in Canada.
However, Aboriginal women make up only 3% of the female population.
First Nation Police Powers
Full powers to enforce the criminal code , federal, provincial statues and band bylaws
In some circumstances they have powers of the reserve
R. v. Decorte (2005) 1 S.C.R.