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Five approaches to qualitative research...

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Marc Gaynor

on 30 September 2011

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Transcript of Five approaches to qualitative research...

Phenomenology Five Approaches to Qualitative Research Similarities and Differences In this review, we will examine
the major characteristics of:
1. Narrative Study
2. Case Study
3. Phenomenology
4. Ethnography
5. and Grounded Theory Why so many? Diverse
Worldviews Case Study Grounded Theory Ethnography So, in order to decide which approach is best for your study, let's have a brief look at each... Phenomenology Case Study Narrative Study Narrative Study Ethnography Each Employs Various Types of Interviews and Observations Though, The Primary Objective is Different Each of these approaches share Biographical Study Narrative Analysis ...as portrayed in a person's Life History ...in which researchers collect descriptions of events, and then configure them into a storyline...
or, Paradigmatic Interpretations Exploration Within a Bounded System (Case) * Collective Case Study * Instrumental Case Study * Intrinsic Case Study Grounded Theory Generate a Theory Shared Experiences Substantive-
Level Theory Constant
Method Systematic
Procedures Social Constructivist Social
Processes a Culture-Sharing Group Participant Observation
(immersed) * Realist Ethnography * Critical Ethnography Universal Essence Shared Experiences * Transendental (psychological) Phenomenology * Hermeneutical Phenomenology The researcher then develops a Textual Description of participant's experiences (what was experienced)... along with a Structural Description (context of the experience) in order to convey an overall Essence of the experience an interpretive process,
in which the researcher makes Interpretation of Meanings For Instance... Open Coding Axial Coding In Narrative Research, the inquirer focuses on the storeis told from the individual and arranges these stories in chronological order In Ethnography, the focus is on setting the individual's stories within the context of their culture... In Case Study Research, the single case may be selected to illustrate an issue, and the researcher compiles a detailed description of the setting for the case... or, multiple sources of information may be gathered around Case-Based Themes Exploring a life
is different from
generating a theory, or describing the behavior
of a cultural group... Such as in a... or... ??? The two types of phenomenology
that we'll look at are... which is oriented towards lived experiences...with reflections on central themes that constitute the nature of the lived experience... ...is focused less on researcher interpretation, and more on description of the experience of participants... researchers set aside their own experiences [Bracketing] in order to take a fresh perspective toward the phenomenon under examination. Phenomenologists focus on describing
what all participants have in common
as they experience a phenomenon The method you chose will depend on your
philisophical assumptions... among other things Variations of case studies exist,
and are differentiated by way of approach. A Grounded Theory researcher develops a theory from examining many individuals who share in the same process, action, or interaction... Theory development is "grounded" in data from participants who have experienced the process... Grounded theory is a good design to use
when a theory is not available to explain a process. The researcher describes and interprets the shared and learned patterns of values, behaviors, beliefs and language... There are several types of ethnograpic research methods,
two of which are; which takes a position of advocacy, emphasizing the emancipation of groups marginalized in society which views information learned from participants in an objective, third person, perspective... and and, that's it in a nutshell ...no pun intended. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design:
Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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