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The Battle of Arnhem
Transcript of The Battle of Arnhem
-British Field Marshal Montgomery suggests that the Allied troops make a single thrust across the Rhine, as opposed to a broadened approach.
-His suggestion is quickly agreed to, as the circumstance of the quickly retreating German army seem to be in their favor.
-The Rhine was the last natural barrier for the Allied troops to overcome before entering German territory. Operation Market Garden The Plan: Operation Market Garden is to be executed in two phases. Phase one involves dropping off the US 101st Airborne division near Eindhoven in the Netherlands, US 82nd Airborne Division near Nijmegan, and the British 1st Airborne Division near Arnhem. There, they are to capture the bridges leading into Germany at Arnhem, and hold them for three days until phase two of their plan. Phase two involves the British 30th Corps making a narrow drive along the Eindhoven-Nijmegan-Arnhem Road, linking up the other three Airborne Divisions, and joining with the US 1st Army in a pincer movement from the south west. -Their plan does not carry out exactly as planned.
-When the British 1st Airborne Division reaches Arnhem, they expect it to be weakly defended.
-They find however that they were wrong, and there are actually 2 SS Panzer Divisions and infantry battalions billeted near the town.
-The British 30th Corps that were supposed to join with the three Airborne Divisions are halted before they even reach Eindhoven. The First Lift -The German forces are alerted and the 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions begin to take up defensive positions.
-The Allied troops meet stiff resistance as they set out towards Arnhem’s road bridge.
-3 Battalion is halted by German forces, so one company heads towards the bridge, while the rest hole up in Oosterbeek.
-2 Battalion begins to move east along the Rhine, however they find that the south bank is heavily defended by German units, so they are only able to secure the north bank. Attempt to Capture the Bridges -The paras (from the Allied side) are still battling to keep the North Side of the road bridge secure.
-The Germans are attacking fiercely at the Allied drop zones, and manage to capture some of the Allied supplies.
-2 South Staffords and 11 Battalion join forces with 1 and 3 Battalion planning to attack Arnhem the next morning and help out 2 Battalion at the road bridge. Moving Out From The Drop Zones -The exhausted British units decide to move along the North Bank of the Rhine towards the road bridge. However they come under heavy fire from the Germans in the South Bank. Some of the paras are able to fall back, but many are captured and killed.
-Near the hospital 2 South Staffords come under heavy fire from the Germans, and most are captured. The 11 Battalion are caught in the open by the German army, and are wiped out. The remaining elements of the Allies are ordered to return back to Oosterbeek.
-Meanwhile 2 Battalion is still holding out the north end of the road bridge, but are finding it more and more difficult. More Attempts to Reach the Bridge - The commanding officer decides that 1st Airborne division can no longer reach 2 Battalion at the road bridge.
- They decide that at this point it is their main priority to defend Oosterbeek, so they begin forming a defensive perimeter.
- The reasoning behind this is to at least hold a section of the North Bank until help from the 30th Corps arrive.
- 10 Battalion is able to make it to the defensive perimeter, but 7 KSOB and 150 Battalion are forced to surrender to the Germans.
- Only 3600 Allied men are able to successfully fight off the German attack at Oosterbeek.
- Meanwhile 2 Battalion is still desperately holding out the north side of the bridge waiting for the 30th Corps to arrive. They come under heavy shelling from the German army which destroys their houses and leaves 150 Allied soldiers wounded as resources begin to run out. Defending Oosterbeek -By the 21st of September each pocket of the paras are isolated under constant firing from the Germans.
-The paras frontline has shrunken so much that the German Armour is able to cross the bridge.
-The 2 Battalion has held the bridge for 4 days and 3 nights, which was longer than they were originally supposed to.
-The Germans attack the Oosterbeek perimeter and shrink the stretch of the river that was held by the British.
-The Allies finding no way across the river to Oosterbeek, finally take defensive positions around Driel. The Bridgehead Collapses -Germans create a defensive line to the south of the river.
-Allied supplies finally arrive, but most accidentally fall into German hands.
-When the Poles are heavily attacked, the 30th Corps step in. They try to cross the river but most are captured.
-More tries are made by the British to cross the river but the Germans have succeeded in cutting off a vital road from Nijmegan.
-The remaining of the 1st Airborne Division has no choice but to withdraw from the battle. The Situation Worsens -On the 25th of September the Germans again attack the Oosterbeek perimeter but are held off.
-With the help of the dark and an Allied artillery barrage from the 30th Corps, evacuation begins.
-Over 2000 Allied men successfully cross the river, but by daylight 300 are forced to surrender under heavy fire as the defense of the “Oosterbeek Cauldron” ends.
-Overall, only 2000 men escape to Driel out of a 10 000 division, the rest are either killed or captured.
-Finally operation Market Garden is over, and was ultimately a failure. The Withdrawal -The Germans were rapidly retreating from France, so the British though their circumstances were favorable.
-The objective of the plan was to capture the bridges at Arnhem that lead into Germany.
-The plan does not carry out as planned as the different divisions become separated, the Allies are lacking supplies and resources, and the Allies underestimated the German defense at Arnhem. -This results in many allied soldiers being killed or forced to surrender by Germans before reaching the bridge.
-The commanding officer decides that the 1st Airborne Division can no longer reach 2 Battalion at the road bridge. It becomes their priority to defend Oosterbeek now.
-The mission is an overall failure, as the goal was not reached and many casualties were faced. 5 Key Points of the Battle of Arnhem By: Noshin, Shiva, Aysha