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Dehydration and it's Effects on Homeostasis
Transcript of Dehydration and it's Effects on Homeostasis
A state of dehydration occurs with excess loss of total body water and is often associated with electrolyte abnormalities.
Causes of Dehydration
The Organ Systems of the Human Body
Symptoms of Dehydration
Dry eyes or mouth
Dark yellow urine
Tiredness or body weaknesses
Sudden weight loss
Homeostasis is the stable internal environment of a living organism. The symptoms of dehydration cause a major disturbance in the homeostasis of the human body. When the internal environment of the human body is not hydrated, it can only survive a few days without water. Every cell, tissue, and organ requires water to function properly. Water helps to flush out waste products, aids in maintaining body temperature, and keeps the tissue in the skin, mouth, eyes, and nose.
Water is lost through perspiration, so drinking water is essential during exercise. When at high altitudes, the breathing rate is twice as fast and all the water loss is due to respiration. When taking prescription drugs, water is important because if there isn't any water, the medication can become concentrated in the bloodstream and it won't be as effective. The kidneys are responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body water through the elimination of waste products.
Integumentary system: Hair, skin, nails
Hot and humid climates
Exercise and perspiration
Levels of Dehydration
Skeletal System: Bones, cartilage, joints, bone marrow
Muscular System: Axial muscles,
appendicular muscles, tendons
Lymphatic System: Thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic vessel.
Respiratory System: Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, diaphragm, lung.
Digestive System: Oral cavity,
esophagus, liver, stomach,small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
1. Mild dehydration--> This is when the body loses about two or three percent of water. Mild symptoms such as: headache, dry mouth, dark urine, loss of appetite, tiredness or fatigue, dry or flushed skin, chills, and constipation may occur.
2. Moderate dehydration--> At this stage the body's fluid loss reaches 5-6%. Symptoms include: little to no urine output, increased heart rate, sunken eyes, decreased ability to sweat, faster breathing, higher body temperature, muscle cramps, extreme fatigue, tingling sensations, and nausea.
3. Severe dehydration--> During this stage, the total body fluid loss is 7-9%. The person may have a rapid pulse, no tear production, rapid breathing, low blood pressure, mottled skin, muscle spasms, impaired vision, shriveled skin, confusion, chest or abdominal pain,seizures and coma.
4. Death is the final stage of dehydration. If dehydration is not treated than death will eventually occur.
Cardiovascular System: Heart, capillaries, artery, vein.
Urinary System: Urniary bladder, kidney, ureter, urethra
Dehydration affects each of the systems of the body. Severe dehydration affects every body system and can also impact the proper balance of vital electrolytes.
The integumentary system depends on all of the other body systems to function, it protects the loss of fluids. It needs water to maintain homeostasis. Without water, the body won't cool normally and some waste will not be released in the sweat (persperation), which can lead to heat related illnesses.
If the nervous system lacks water it can cause anxiety, panic, difficulty with focusing, and tension. Water is essential to the electrical signal transmissions. Without water, it becomes difficult for the signals to be sent because the electrolytes need water to do that.
Water is essential in carrying oxygen throughout the body in the blood. When the blood is circulating, the water dilutes it and prevents it from clotting.
Water is used in the nasal passages, bronchial tubes, and lungs to keep them moist. If dehydration is occuring, histamine causes mucus to coat the tissues and prevent further drying. Alleriges, COPD, and asthma are due to dehydrated tissues becoming more sensitive.
The skeletal system is not as affected by dehydration because it is made up of cartilage and bone.
If the body has a lack of water, the muscles will be deprived of electrolytes and start to cramp. Muscles are controlled by nerves- and with lack of water comes an uneven electrolyte imbalance, which results in impairment of muscle strength and control. Dehydration can prevent muscles from properly contracting.
The lymphatic system is responsible for removing foreign bodies, bacteria, and excess watstes from the body. Fluid flows in one direction only, and water prevents it from getting clogged. Without proper hydration, wastes cannot be removed which can cause edema. Metabolic and infectious problems can start because the cells cannot function properly without the water.
The urinary system is an important part of removing wastes from the body. Without hydration, urine will appear darker and the urine output can decrease. Without water, the kidneys will be unable to filter out the bio-chemicals to acheive homeostasis.
Water is very important for digestion. Without water, the intestines would not be smooth and the food would not move along through. The large intestine soaks up water from food waste, so when there is no water it makes stool hard and results in chronic constipation.
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Water makes up more than half of the human body, and is needed by each cell to function properly. Drinking water every day is vital or the process of dehydration will start. Dehydration can either be very serious or temporary. It is recommended to drink water with every meal, during and after exercsing, and when out in the warm weather.