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Jesse Conant

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Crusades

The European Crusades to the Holy Land
or was it CONQUEST?
Causes and Beginning
“GODS WILLS IT” -Pope Urban II
Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comenius needed defense from Seljuk Turks

Pope Urban II rallies 100,000 Europeans in defense of Byzantines, re-conquer Holy Land

Would help alleviate the constant fighting amongst Europeans

1st Crusade 1096-1099 CE
Christian/Catholic successful invade Holy Land

Mistreatment of Jews, Muslims, Orthodox Christians

Was for religious reasons first, later economic, political

Plenary Indulgence means if you died while on Crusade=soul goes to heaven

3rd Crusade 1189-1192 CE
Saladin conquers Egypt, Syria, Jerusalem

Richard the Lionhearted, Frederick Barbossa, Philip Augustus try to retake Jerusalem-unsuccessfully

Christians ultimately allowed to make pilgrimages to Holy Land

4th Crusade
"There was never a greater crime against humanity than the Fourth Crusade."
First, led by Pope Innocent III, but "Crusaders" focused attention more to personal greed then religious virtue

Catholic Crusaders decide to first attack Egypt, (powerful Islamic lands) decide they would rather attack fellow Christians in Constantinople instead!

Crusaders burned, and slaughtered the inhabitants; they destroyed monuments, statues, paintings, and manuscripts - the accumulation of a thousand years. Any treasure that could taken, was.

After the destruction of Constantinople, the city and Byzantine Empire falls further into decline for the next two centuries
Other Crusades Info
Children’s Crusade in 1212 CE

By 1291 CE all conquered lands are back in Muslim control

Byzantine Empire is continually under pressure from Muslim groups (Seljuks, Ottomans, Persians)

Positive Effects
Weakened Feudal System

Rise of nationalism=power of monarchs

Commerce improves/diversifies for Europe

Opens the mind/intellectual creativity of Europe

Power of the R.C.C.

Decline of Byzantine Empire

Jews and Muslims in Europe constantly attacked by zealous Catholic "crusaders"

Islamic empire begins to splinter apart towards the end of this period

2-6 million dead

Animosity, distrust, violence amongst Christians, Jews, Muslims over this land TO THIS DAY

Negative Effects
Saladin was Sultan of Egypt, had recently captured other Muslim lands around the Jerusalem

Reconquered various Crusader lands and towns, above all the holy city of Jerusalem, which had been in Christian hands for 88 years

In contrast to the Crusaders' bloodbath when they had taken Jerusalem, Saladin acted with great kindness to the Christian and Jewish residents

Considered the model prince by Muslim admirers and Christian foes alike, Saladin has been memorialized in history and legend to the present day
Richard was known as a strong leader and warrior b

In the third Crusade 1191–92 he won victories at Cyprus, Acre, and Arsuf (against Saladin), but failed to recover Jerusalem.

While returning overland he was captured by the Duke of Austria. He was held prisoner until a large ransom was raised.

On his release he returned briefly to England, where his brother John had been ruling. His later years were spent in warfare in France, where he was killed by a crossbow bolt
Was it pilgrimmage or holy war?
Full transcript