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Religions of the World Campbell
Transcript of Religions of the World Campbell
2.2 Billion Christians today
Founded by Jesus Christ, 33 A.D.
Jesus was Jewish
Claimed to be Son of God
Jesus is the Son of God
Jesus was crucified and died for the sins of humanity
People can live eternally in heaven by following the teachings of Jesus
Old Testament- Hebrew Bible
New Testament- Teachings of Jesus
Best-selling book of all time
3 Major Groups
Founded in 622 A.D. by the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad was a caravan trader
Muhammad was in the Quraysh tribe
Lived in Mecca (Present-day Saudi Arabia)
1.6 Billion followers called Muslims
Islam means "The Way"
Believe in all of the Prophets of Judaism and Christianity
One God named "Allah"
Faith in Allah
Prayer five times
a day facing Mecca
Pilgrimage to Mecca
5 Pillars of Islam
Stories and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad
How did Christianity spread?
The Roman Empire
The Birth of Islam
God Revealed teachings to Muhammad in a vision with an angel
Ideas caused issues with religious leaders
Muhammad fled to Medina in 624
Sunni vs. Shi'a Muslims
After Muhammad dies, who should lead?
Sunni = Elect leaders
Shi'a = Leaders should be related to Muhammad
Why do we study religion?
The Dome of the Rock
Where Muhammad ascended into heaven
City of Mecca
14 million Jews
Founded by Abraham in 2,000 BC
Abraham made a covenant with Yahweh
Formed in what is now Israel
First Major religion to teach only one God
The Torah = First 5 book of Old Testament
There is one God called Yahweh
God loves and protects his people
God holds people accountable for sins
Yahweh promised Abraham land, descendants, personal relationship with God
Follow the 10 Commandments
Yarmulke- head covering worn by Jewish men
Sabbath- Saturday is the day of rest
Kosher- Jewish law regarding food
No unclean animals
Meat must be butchered a specific way
Important Places and Events
Jerusalem- Holy Temple
Holocaust in World War II, killed 6 million
Creation of Jewish state of Israel, 1948
1 Billion Hindus
Founded between 3000-2000 BC in India
No single founder
Combination of ancient beliefs
One of the oldest surviving religions
True Enlightenment and happiness through:
Freedom from earthly desires
Reincarnation- after death your spirit is born into a different body
Holy Text= "The Vedas"
Gods of Hinduism
Worship multiple gods
3 Central gods
Brahma- creator of the universe
Vishnu- preserver of the universe
Shiva- destroyer of the universe
Reverence for cows
Central to rural life
Bathing in the Ganges River- spiritual cleansing
Guru- master of tradition, a teacher
Hereditary divisions in society
4 Divisions called "Varna"
Brahmins- priestly caste
Kshatriyas- warriors and rulers
Vaishyas- landowning farmers and merchants
Sudras- laborers and artisans
Also "Harijans"- the untouchables
500 Million Buddhists
Founded by Buddha in about 500 BC in India
Buddhism is a reform of Hinduism
Buddha achieved Enlightenment
Buddha set in motion the "wheel of teaching"
Removing worldly goods and desires- the "Middle Way"
Change is always possible
The goal of life is to break the cycle of life and death
Belief in Karma following into the next life
The 4 Noble Truths
1) All life is suffering
2) Desire is the cause of suffering
3) Removing desire removes suffering
4) Removing desire through the Eightfold Path
The Eightfold Path
1. Right Views
2. Right Resolve
3. Right Speech
4. Right Conduct
5. Right Livelihood
6. Right Effort
7. Right Mindfulness
8. Right Concentration
Major Sects of Buddhism
Theravada= "Way of the Elders"
Mahayana= "The Great Vehicle"
Dhammapada- collection of sayings
8,233 deaths in 2012
99,135 incidents in 2011