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Religions of the World Campbell

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by

Brian Campbell

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Religions of the World Campbell

Hinduism
Christianity
Islam
Judaism
Buddhism
2.2 Billion Christians today
Founded by Jesus Christ, 33 A.D.
Jesus was Jewish
Claimed to be Son of God
Poor Preacher
Basic Beliefs
Jesus is the Son of God
Jesus was crucified and died for the sins of humanity
People can live eternally in heaven by following the teachings of Jesus
10 Commandments
The Bible
Old Testament- Hebrew Bible
New Testament- Teachings of Jesus
Best-selling book of all time
3 Major Groups
Roman Catholic
Protestant
Eastern Orthodox
Important Places
Jerusalem
Vatican City
Founded in 622 A.D. by the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad was a caravan trader
Muhammad was in the Quraysh tribe
Lived in Mecca (Present-day Saudi Arabia)
1.6 Billion followers called Muslims

Beliefs
Islam means "The Way"
Believe in all of the Prophets of Judaism and Christianity
One God named "Allah"
1.
Faith in Allah
2.
Prayer five times
a day facing Mecca
3.
Charity
4.
Fasting during
Ramadan
5.
Pilgrimage to Mecca
5 Pillars of Islam
Holy Book
The Qur'an
Hadith
Stories and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad
How did Christianity spread?
The Roman Empire
The Birth of Islam
God Revealed teachings to Muhammad in a vision with an angel
Ideas caused issues with religious leaders
Muhammad fled to Medina in 624
Sunni vs. Shi'a Muslims
After Muhammad dies, who should lead?
Sunni = Elect leaders
Shi'a = Leaders should be related to Muhammad
World Religions
Why do we study religion?
Important Places
The Ka'Ba
The Dome of the Rock
In Jerusalem
Where Muhammad ascended into heaven
City of Mecca
Pilgrimage
14 million Jews
Founding
Founded by Abraham in 2,000 BC
Abraham made a covenant with Yahweh
Formed in what is now Israel
First Major religion to teach only one God
Holy Text
The Torah = First 5 book of Old Testament
Basic Beliefs
There is one God called Yahweh
God loves and protects his people
God holds people accountable for sins
Yahweh promised Abraham land, descendants, personal relationship with God
Follow the 10 Commandments
Jewish Customs
Yarmulke- head covering worn by Jewish men
Sabbath- Saturday is the day of rest
Kosher- Jewish law regarding food
No unclean animals
Meat must be butchered a specific way
Important Places and Events
Jerusalem- Holy Temple
Holocaust in World War II, killed 6 million
Creation of Jewish state of Israel, 1948
1 Billion Hindus
Founding
Founded between 3000-2000 BC in India
No single founder
Combination of ancient beliefs
One of the oldest surviving religions
Basic Beliefs
True Enlightenment and happiness through:
Freedom from earthly desires
Karma
Virtuous Acts
Dharma= "morality"
Reincarnation- after death your spirit is born into a different body
Holy Text= "The Vedas"
Gods of Hinduism
Worship multiple gods
3 Central gods
Brahma- creator of the universe
Vishnu- preserver of the universe
Shiva- destroyer of the universe
Religious Traditions
Meditation- "Aum"
Yoga
Reverence for cows
Central to rural life
Bathing in the Ganges River- spiritual cleansing
Guru- master of tradition, a teacher
Caste System
Hereditary divisions in society
4 Divisions called "Varna"
Brahmins- priestly caste
Kshatriyas- warriors and rulers
Vaishyas- landowning farmers and merchants
Sudras- laborers and artisans
Also "Harijans"- the untouchables
500 Million Buddhists
Founding
Founded by Buddha in about 500 BC in India
Buddhism is a reform of Hinduism
Buddha achieved Enlightenment
Buddha set in motion the "wheel of teaching"
Basic Beliefs
Removing worldly goods and desires- the "Middle Way"
Reincarnation
Meditation
Change is always possible
The goal of life is to break the cycle of life and death
Achieve "Nirvana"
Belief in Karma following into the next life
The 4 Noble Truths
1) All life is suffering
2) Desire is the cause of suffering
3) Removing desire removes suffering
4) Removing desire through the Eightfold Path
The Eightfold Path
1. Right Views
2. Right Resolve
3. Right Speech
4. Right Conduct
5. Right Livelihood
6. Right Effort
7. Right Mindfulness
8. Right Concentration
Major Sects of Buddhism
Theravada= "Way of the Elders"
Mahayana= "The Great Vehicle"
Holy Texts
Tripitaka
Dhammapada- collection of sayings
Controversy
Dowry
Bride Burning
8,233 deaths in 2012
99,135 incidents in 2011
Full transcript