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Chemical Kinetics

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Kevin Buckley

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of Chemical Kinetics

End
Collision Theory

1. For a reaction to occur the particles must collide.
2. The particles must collide with the correct orientation.
3. The colliding particles must have a minimum energy called the Activation Energy
Factors that affect the rate of Reaction
Chemical Kinetics
Topic 6: How Reactions occur
What does the term Kinetics mean to you?
What is the rate of Reaction? How do we know a reaction is taking place?
Rate of reaction-
is the change in concentration of any one reactant or product in unit time
What is Collision Theory?
1. For a reaction to occur the particles must collide.


2. The particles must collide with the correct orientation.



3. The colliding particles must have a minimum energy called the Activation Energy
1. Effect of concentration on rate
Increasing concentration increases the Rate of Reaction

2.Effect of temperature on rate
Why?
Increased energy of collisions- more collisions reach activation energy, more collisions are effective

Increased no. of collisions- due to the increased velocity of the particles

Experiment to investigate the effect of Temperature on Rates of Reaction
Maxwell-Boltzman Distribution
Features to note:
- Non Symmetrical
- No Molecules present with zero K.E.
- At higher energy the line does not reach the x-axis
- The area under the line represents the total number of particles and will not change as the temperature changes.
3. Particle Size Affects Rate of Reaction
The smaller the particle size the larger surface area for the same mass as a larger area particle

Therefore, more molecules are exposed to attack= more effective collisions

4. Nature of the Substance i.e. Ionic or Covalent
Nature of the Substance
- Ionic Substances, when dissolved in solution are present (exist) as free ions in the solution. No Bond Breaking


- Whereas in Covalent substances, the covalent bonds must be broken and this leads to a decrease in the rate of reaction for covalent substances.

Types of Catalysts
1. Homogeneous Catalysis The reactants and catalysts are in the same phase
2. Heterogeneous Catalysis The reactants and catalysts are in different phases
3. Autocatalysis
Occurs when one of the products formed catalyses the reaction
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