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Transcript of 14.1 Groundwater
Water in the Ground
- water that enters the ground and is stored there.
Factors that affect the amount of water that seeps into the ground are the types of rock and soil, climate, and geography.
The amount of water that soil or rock can hold depends on the amount of space between the grains of the material.
is the percent of a material that is pore space.
Porosity depends on:
Round particles will have more pore space (high porosity).
Flat or angular particles will have less pore space (low porosity).
Porosity is high when particles are all the same size.
When you have large and small particles mixed, the smaller particles (like sand) will fill in the pore spaces.
is the rate at which water or other liquids pass through the pore spaces of a rock.
Permeability increases with grain size because large-grained materials have larger pore spaces.
Gravel = high permeability
Silt = low permeability
- water or liquid cannot pass through.
It is possible to be highly porous, but not permeable.
Some water that passes through sediment or rock sticks to the particles, forming a film of water.
The Water Table
When rain falls to the ground, the water seeps (infiltrates) into the soil and sediment below the surface.
It will move down until it hits impermeable rock where it builds up and saturates the ground.
The part of the ground where all the pore spaces are filled is called the
zone of saturation
The upper boundary of the zone of saturation is called the
The Water Table
The area above the water table is called the
zone of aeration
Air can enter the region.
3 parts of the zone of aeration:
Capillary fringe (just above the WT)- where water rises due to its attraction to the soil particles.
Above the capillary fringe is an area that is usually drier.
Below the surface, the soil is rich in organic matter that helps hold more water.
Factors that affect the water table:
Amount of rainfall
Amount of time that passes between rains
The slope of the ground surface
Thickness of the soil
Keeps streams flowing.
Maintains swamps and lakes.
Supplies drinking water to wells.
Importance of the Water Table: