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The French Revolution

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Janell Ramos

on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of The French Revolution

Fighting and Chopping Heads Off
Napoleon's Rise and Fall...
Radicals and the Reign of Terror
Document C-2 Revolution and Great Terror
Document C-3 France Declares War
Document C-4 Napoleon and Empire

A. European monarchs feared revolutions in their countries
a. Austria and Prussia asked to have Louis put back as an absolute monarch
b. Legislative Assembly declared war on them
B. War with Prussia
a. Prussian army pushed into Paris
b. The people took the king and queen prisoner, murdered the royal guards
c. Mobs rioted and massacred 1000s royalist prisoners (September Massacres)
d. Radicals forced National Assembly to do what they said
i. Set aside constitution
ii. Declared king deposed (no more)
iii. Dissolve the assembly
iv. New election of Legislature
C. New Government (new again…again)
a. National Convention is new assembly
i. Abolished monarchy for good
ii. Declare France a Republic
iii. Adult male citizens granted right to vote and hold office…not women
iv. Jacobins (very radical) influence of new government
1. Jean Paul Marat, newspaper editor wanted kings supporters killed
b. National Convention finds Louis guilty of treason
i. Cut his head off with the guillotine (giant blade machine)
D. War effort not going so well
a. Still fighting Prussia and Austria
b. Victory at Valmy 1792 didn’t last long
c. 1793 Great Britain, Holland and Spain join against France
E. Jacobins NOT popular inside or outside of France
a. Peasants hate them for executing king
b. Priests won’t obey gov’t
c. Little rebellions everywhere

Maximillien Robespierre
Documents C 1-5
Research
Middle Class and Taxes
Document C-1 Causes of French Revolution
Balancing power after Napoleon
Document C-5 Congress of Vienna
A. Social Structure of France
a. The Old Order/Regime: Society was divided into 3 groups (estates)
i. First Estate : the Catholic Church, paid 2% of taxes
ii. Second Estate: Nobles, paid almost no taxes
iii. Third Estate: everyone else, they paid 50% of their money in taxes
b. Third Estate included wealthy merchants (bourgeoisie or middle class) who believed in Enlightenment ideas, paid high taxes and NO political privileges, 98% of population
B. The Enlightenment Ideas
a. The ideas that inspired America also inspired France
C. French economy was declining because TAXES were too high

The Congress of Vienna
The French Revolution
Cornell Notes
D. The King and Queen (Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette) spent too much money
a. Also gave Americans money to fight their revolution

E. Louis called the Estates-General meeting May 12, 1789
a. approval of new tax needed
b. no king had called the Estates-General in 175 years
c. each Estate got ONE vote, First and Second Estate out voted the third estate
d. Aristotle’s “middle class” necessary idea at work

Cornell: questions (clarifying, surface, critical)
Summary: First Estate, Second Estate, bourgeoisie, taxes, Estates-General, also APPLY what you know about Aristotle's middle class philosophy and John Locke's social contract


The Revolution Happens PART 1
A. Third estate wants to make government reforms
a. Enlightenment influence
b. More direct democracy, not medieval voting
B. King Louis sided with Nobles to defeat Third estate
C. National Assembly, the 1st step in Revolution
a. Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes (syay-YEHS) gave a speech urging Third Estate to call themselves the “National Assembly”
b. to pass laws in name of French people
c. June 17, 1789 the Third Estate voted to call themselves the National Assembly
d. This ended the absolute monarchy
e. Began democratic gov’t
D. The King locked the “National Assembly” out of the meeting
a. They broke down an indoor tennis court door to get into the meeting
b. Swore to stay on the tennis court until a new constitution was written (Tennis Court Oath)
c. Some nobles and clergy (catholic priests) joined the National Assembly
d. Louis put Swiss guards all around his Versailles palace
E. Rumors that Louis would use foreign soldiers to disband the National Assembly spread
a. third estate/National Assembly/revolutionaries stormed the Bastille prison to look for gunpowder and weapons
b. they killed the guards, put heads on spikes
F. Great Fear spreads through France
a. peasants burned nobles’s houses, looted
b. October 1789 women rioted for bread at Versailles
c. broke into palace, killed guards

Cornell: questions (clarifying, surface, critical)
Summary: (What were the first steps in French Revolution?) include National Assembly, third estate, tennis court, Bastille, Great Fear

French Revolution Terror

A. National Assembly Reforms France
a. August 4, 1789 nobles join National Assembly
i. Nobles spoke about liberty, but feared riots and violence against them more
ii. The Old Order was eliminated
B. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen
a. “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”
b. Slogan “Life, Liberty, Fraternity”…but only for men…
c. “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”
C. Assembly takes over the church
a. Took lands, sold it to pay debt
b. Peasants got mad because they were very Catholic and believed the Pope should rule over the church
D. Louis and Marie Antoinette tried to escape
a. Caught at border to Austria
b. Made some people hate them more
E. New constitution written September 1791
a. Limited Monarchy created
b. Legislative Assembly created
i. Split into 3 groups
1. radical: a bunch of change
2. moderates: a little change
3. conservatives: limited monarchy and minimal change
c. 2 other groups try to make changes
i. Emigres: nobles who ran away want to restore Old Order/Old Regime
ii. Sans-culottes (without knee breeches) men in regular long pants, not short fancy pants

Cornell: questions (clarifying, surface, critical)
Summary (What were the reforms and why was France so unstable?)

France Declares War
F. Maximilien Robespierre
a. Radical Jacobin leader
i. Ruled as a dictator
ii. Remade calendar, eliminated Sunday because Jacobins believed religion “dangerous”
iii. Closed all churches in Paris
iv. Enemies of state trial in morning, guillotined in the afternoon
v. He turned on his fellow Jacobins who weren’t as radical as him or who didn’t support him enough
vi. Remember “power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely”
b. His rule was called Reign of Terror
i. He killed about 40, 000 peasants and middle class people
c. National Convention turned on Robespierre
i. Guillotined July 28, 1794

G. Another NEW government 1795
a. Power given to upper middle classes
b. Two house legislature (make laws)
c. Directory (5 men with Executive power) like 5 presidents or 5 consuls of Rome
d. Found Napoleon Bonaparte to lead army (war still happening)

Summary: include Prussia, September Massacres, National Convention, Jacobins, Maximilian Robespierre, Reign of Terror
Napoleon Forges an Empire
A. Who was Napoleon?
a. defended the National Convention from attack
b. Directory appointed him to lead army against Austria
c. Won battles, but got stuck in Egypt and defeated by British
B. 1799 Directory lost control of France (poor France can’t keep a government)
a. Napoleon used his troops to take over National Convention
i. Legislature dissolved Directory
ii. Named 3 consuls, like Rome…Napoleon was one of the consuls
iii. Napoleon quickly took all the power for himself
iv. Called the “coup d’Etat” (sudden seizure of power)
C. Napoleon Restores order in France
a. A vote by the people or “plebiscite” was held to approve new constitution
b. Set up efficient tax system
c. National banks
d. Dismissed corrupt public officials
e. Created lycees which are gov’t run schools to educate men for gov’t jobs
f. Concordat (an agreement) with Pope Pius VII
i. Restored Catholic Church in France
ii. Made Napoleon popular
g. Napoleonic Code
i. Uniform set of laws
ii. Promoted order and unity, NOT individual rights
iii. Freedom of speech and press restricted
iv. Restored slavery on French Caribbean colonies


D. Napoleon crowned Emperor 1804
a. In Notre Dame he crowned himself (symbol he was more powerful than Church)
b. Creates an Empire
i. Slave rebellion in Saint Dominique
ii. Disease defeats his troops
iii. Slaves fight hard
iv. Sells Louisiana Territory to Thomas Jefferson $15 million
1. figures America will hassle the English sooner or later

c. Conquers Europe
i. Austria, Prussia and Russia sign peace treaties and work WITH Napoleon
ii. Battle of Trafalgar, a naval battle he lost against Great Britain
1. result: Britain would maintain its Naval might
2. Napoleon had to give up invading Great Britain
iii. Britain, Portugal, Sweden and Ottoman Empire only countries not controlled by Napoleon.
iv. He put family members on thrones of other countries


Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
A. Mistake #1: Continental System Policy
a. Set up a naval blockade to stop trade and communication into Great Britain
i. Smugglers got goods passed the blockades
ii. Some countries ignored it
iii. British made their own blockage
1. forced all neutral ships to pay taxes
B. Mistake #2: Invaded Portugal
a. Tried to make Portugal obey the Continental System
b. Went through Spain to get to Portugal
i. Made Spanish mad
ii. made them feel sense of “nationalism” (nationalism is when you LOVE your country, think your country better than any)
iii. guerrilla fighters attacked French soldiers
iv. war with Spanish guerrilla fighters called “Peninsular War”
1. lasted 6 years
2. nationalism (feel loyalty to your own country) spread
3. European countries started to turn against French

C. Mistake #3: Invaded Russia with 420,000
a. Russia and France distrust each other
i. Both want Poland
b. Russian army used “scorched earth” tactic
i. Burn fields of grain and kill farm animals so invading army has nothing to eat
c. Russian Czar Alexander burned Moscow the “holy city” rather than have it in Napoleon’s hands
d. Napoleon retreats back to France
i. in snowy winter weather
ii. 10,000 troops left
iii. Starving, weak and vulnerable
e. European countries gang up on Napoleon/France
i. Kick Napoleon when he’s down, only way to win
ii. Exiled Napoleon to island of Elba (off coast of Italy)
iii. Louis XVIII put on throne
iv. Napoleon comes back for Hundred Days
1. emperor again
2. gets defeated at Battle of Waterloo June 18, 1815 by British and Prussian armies
3. gets exiled again
4. dies in 1821 on remote South Atlantic island


Summary of Document C-4
A. All European countries wanted peace and stability
B. Meetings with all leaders from Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain and France were held to achieve
the goal of peace and stability
a. Meetings called “Congress of Vienna”
b. Held in Vienna 1814-1815
C. Prince of Austria, Klemens von Metternich
a. Didn’t like Enlightenment idea
b. Distrusted democracy
c. Promoted stability of law
d. Surround France with strong countries
i. Austrian Netherlands and Dutch republic united into Kingdom of the Netherlands
ii. 39 German states formed new German Confederation led by Austria
iii. Switzerland independent nation
iv. Kingdom of Sardinia (Italy) combined with Genoa
e. Restore the royal families to their kingdoms (before Napoleon)
i. Legitimacy
f. Balance power of European powers so no ONE country threatened another
g. 40 years of peace followed




D. Europe Nervous about more Revolutions
a. Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia agree to use Christian principles with each other
i. Their agreement is called: “Holy Alliance”
b. nations agreed to help each other if revolutions happened
i. this agreement is called: “Concert of Europe”
c. democratic ideas from enlightenment couldn’t be stopped
d. revolution began in Latin America
E. Spanish King back in power
a. Spanish royalists want colonies back
b. Mexicans angry, they didn’t want to be Spanish colonists again
c. They gained their independence from Spain
F. Nationalism grows like a weed
a. Love/pride in one’s nation powerful force
b. New revolutions would happen
c. New countries would be shaped
G. Democracy seen as best system for equality and justice
Summary of Document C-5
Full transcript