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Copy of China's Hard Power in the Asia-Pacific Region
Transcript of Copy of China's Hard Power in the Asia-Pacific Region
China's Economic/military Rise
China and Aid
China's Use of Hard Power
Nye's 'Smart Power'
Joseph Nye, "Power is ones ability to affect the behavior of others to get what one wants."
3 basic ways: coercion, payment and attraction
Hard Power: Coercion and payment
Last 20-30 yrs China has become a world superpower
Foreign commerce USD$3 trillion
USD $2.5 trillion foreign reserves
China has used this to invest heavily in increasing its military capacity
Outside estimates range from USD$100-150 billion
Investment based on projecting power in maritime, air, space and cyber areas.
Allowed China the confidence to pursue a more assertive foreign policy, in particular in relation to the Taiwan issue and sovereignty claims over islands in the Asia region.
China's Economic Rise
Senkaku Islands Dispute
China claims the Senkakus, administered by Japan.
Sept 2010, Chinese fishing trawler rammed a Japanese coast guard vessel.
Japan arrests vessel's captain.
China responds by cutting off exports of rare earth metals (which they hold almost complete monopoly over), whih are vital to Japans technology industry.
Recent flare ups, causing civil unrest in China.
China's exertion of hard power assertiveness has fuelled popular nationalism within China
May become a cause of major instability within the region
Assertiveness has led to fears within Asia-Pacific regarding security within the region
China has taken steps to combat this through hard and soft power measures, something Nye termed in 2003 as 'smart power'
An example of this 'smart power' can be seen in China's increasing involvement in the Pacific.
China Threat Theory
China established diplomatic relations in 1997
2004 - China begins construction on $4.8 mill courthouse as well as sending planners for a $3.7 mill police headquarters
April 2004 - pledges $16 mill in grants
China and the Cook Islands
Growing visibility of China within the region as a responsible global citizen
With the movement of workers, planners, diplomats, Chinese culture becomes more visible in these Pacific nations
Aid is given conditionally, provided these nations recognise the PRC as the legitmate government of China and not the ROC (Taiwan)
Not explcitly use of hard economic power but rather an example of 'smart power', in the sense that it is a it is promoting China as a responsible regional citizen, whilst promoting Chinese culture wthin the region as well as taking measures to counter Taiwan.
China has taken steps to ensure its military are responsible also through:
increased participation in UN Peacekeeping Missions and humanitarina missions
Indian Ocean Tsunami - 2004
Pakistani Earthquake - 2005
3 ship task-force sent to Gulf of Aden to combat against Somali piracy
Un Peacekeeping Missions (Darfur, Lebanon, Congo)
Chinese use of hard military and economic power is having an impact on the ethnoscapes in the Asia-Pacific
Flows of workers and tourists are being exchanged between Pacific Island nations and China.
Conditionalities placed on aid constitute a type of economic hard power in aid of increasing Chinese dominance within Asia Pacific
Chinese invovlement in UN Peacekeeping - 'smart power'
Domonstrates that China's rise is not a threat and that it can be a responsible global and regional citizen
China's hard power
China's soft power
Sources of soft power:
Chinese traditional culture
Network of 70 million Chinese immigrants
Confucius institutes / Education
Chinese development models
China’s agreement not to devaluate its currency during the Asian financial crisis
China’s role as a mediator in the North Korean nuclear standoff
Ability to handle domestic political and economic reform
Huge lending program in the Global Financial Crisis
Foreign Aid program
What is soft power?
The ability to get what you want through attraction rather than through coercion. Soft power, could be developed through relations with allies, economic assistance, and cultural exchanges. - Joseph Nye
How do you feel about Chinese influence in Australia?
How have Chinese students in Australia shaped your perception of China?
Snap shot: Chinese Aid
Confucius Institutes (CIs)
culture and language centers
soft power projection
Approaches to foreign aid: Beijing Consensus vs Washington Consensus
Chinese foreign aid is mainly provided in the form of grants and technical assistance, concessional finance, and interest-free loans and debt relief
It is difficult to identify tangible outcomes that are a result of Chinese soft power, however:
Education promotes understanding, develops good will and benefits Chinese industry.
Chinese 'no strings attached aid' undermines western influence, promotes Chinese models in the the global ideascape and fosters positive bilateral relatioships.
China's Growth and Influence
•“When a new power rises it inevitably disturbs the balance of power.”• If China’s economy continues to grow at such astronomical levels, it will be in position to surpass the United States in the next few decades.•China’s rise has caused a growing fear in many Americans that it is weakening Western societies.
China’s Hard Power in comparison to the US
China has the world’s 2nd largest defence budget. Expenditures have reach between $50 and $70 billion.
Although it is not strong enough to challenge the US.
China’s military budget is only one-eighth the size of the US.
China has a long way to go overtake the US in terms of military in the Asia-Pacific region.
Kickback of the US
•The US is using methods of Hard Power to resist China’s influence.•The United States is refocusing attention on the Asia-Pacific…the strongest and most dynamic growth rate is still in the Asia-Pacific region. We know where the future is. We have to make sure we are deeply anchored."•The US is expanding its military presence in the region, such as sending more navy ships to the region.•Australia welcomed the first rotational deployment of 250 US marines to Darwin and Northern Australia.
what has been the ‘kickback’ of Australia to counter Chinese influence in the Asia-Pacific?
The relationship between Australia and China
Two major trading partners
A bilateral economic relationship
Australia is the largest host of Chinese direct investment in the world
Majority of Chinese direct investment is in Australian raw materials
Resulting in job creation and economic stability
A reliance on China has been established
The issue of Australia’s ‘balancing act’ between China and the U.S.
The ‘balancing act’ between China and the U.S.
Future possibility that conflicts could arise regarding Australia’s relations with the U.S. and China
China’s soft-power influence
United States’ hard-power influence
Dependency on Chinese economic growth
Dependency on U.S. for security and stability for the region
In response to China’s rising influence in the Asia-Pacific Australia has had to balance its security ties with the U.S. and its economic and political ties with China
Shifting power in the Asia-Pacific
Within Australia, there is very little worry that China will become a military threat
Geographically, Australia is remote in relation to China
Australia does not face territorial disputes like Japan and Vietnam
Australia’s balancing act may be upset if the U.S. becomes involved in military action against China over the Taiwan issue
China’s soft power within Australia keeps these issues at bay and sustains the nature of Australian/Chinese relations
The attractiveness of both the Chinese and Australian economies will continue to forge these soft-power ties
Enduring U.S. hard power influence in Australia has been increasing over the last few years due to the United State’s objective to remain a dominant power within the Asia-Pacific
"Our enduring interests in the region demand our enduring presence in the region, the United States is a Pacific power, and we are here to stay," – Barack Obama
How do Australians view China’s rising influence?
‘Newspapers play a particular and very significant role in shaping the reading publics’ geopolitical imaginaries in both the domestic and international realm’ (Mawdsley, 2008)
The positive net tone of Australian coverage is largely driven by strongly positive coverage of Chinese aid and economic issues
Negative coverage tends to draw towards other elements of Australian/Chinese interactions and relations such as upsetting military stability and Australia/U.S. relations
The ‘balancing act’ question and future security/dominance fears that people begin to view China’s rise with suspicion
Military presence in the Asia-Pacific
•“It (the US) needs to do everything in its power to prevent the region and the world from being influenced by Beijing,"•Washington is using the same old method as used during the conflict with the Soviet Union; surrounding the opponent with military bases.•There are US bases in Japan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Guam and Thailand •The United States has recently set up a base in Darwin, which will accommodate 2500 US army Marines.
Australia’s position in the US kickback of China’s rise.
•Australia is emphasising the benefits of the US presence in the Asia Pacific.•Australia assures Chinese officials that Australia's 40-year relationship with China would not be adversely affected by the US alliance.•Chinese leaders have expressed unhappiness at any larger US presence in the Asia Pacific region. •"In Australia's view, the United States has underwritten stability in the Asia-Pacific for the past half century and will continue to be the single most important strategic factor in our region for the foreseeable future."•Australia’s strong relationship with china in terms of economics, military and defence, has not been influenced by the 60 year alliance with the United States.
China has used hard power such as military expenditure and modernization, and soft power, such as education, to increase its influence in the region.
This is having an impact on the ethnoscapes of the Asia-Pacific Region.
Using military capabiities to demonstrate it can be responsible gloabal citizen
Flows of tourists students throughout the region are evidence of increasing globalisation.
The U.S. has resisted China's rise through the growing military presence in the Asia Pacific region.
Australia is balancing its U.S. and Chinese interests for future global security and economic prosperity.
Is China's use of smart power enough to diminish the effect of the orientalist gaze from the West?
A conflict has arisen between the USA and China. How do you believe Australia would align itself? What would be the social and economic implications of this decision?