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Introduction to International History, Part III
Transcript of Introduction to International History, Part III
Dr. Matthew P. Funaiole
Phases of the Cold War (1962-79)
Other Issues Relevant Today
The Rwandan Genocide (1994):
mass slaughter of Tutsi by members of the Hutu majority. 500,000 - 1,000,000 deaths in 100 days. Limited support from international community.
Introduction to International History, Part III
Overview of the Day
1960s - Present
The Stages of the Cold War
Phases of the Cold War (1979-91)
The War in Iraq (2003-2011)
Invasion of Iraq by US to topple Saddam Hussein. US quickly seized power. Hussein imprisoned. Left a power vacuum in the counter. Led to insurgency.
Important to understand history. Provides context for current affairs and insights into power shifts.
Post-Cold War unipolarity
The War on Terror
Other Global Issues
Numerous power struggles all over the world.
Potential instability resulting from the rise of the rest.
The Sino-Soviet Alliance
Post-Cold War Order
Shifts in historical eras often result in political uncertainty. Just as was the case with the end of WWI and WWII, it was unclear what would emerge as the new structure of power.
The System Takes Shape
The post-Cold War system began to take shape with the Gulf War (1990-1991).
War in Slovenia (1991)
Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995)
Bosnian War (1992–1995)
Kosovo War (1998–1999), including the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley (1999-2001)
Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia (2001)
War in Afghanistan (2001-2014)
Aimed at removing the
from power and dismantling al-Qaeda’s basis of operations.
US justification for the invasion was not accepted by the international community. US official stated Iraq was the most dangerous country in the world.
Axis of Evil
. As time went on, American population also turned against the war.
Trans-national security threats. Such as the drug trade, human trafficking, and climate change.
Provides the discipline of International Relations with tools for identifying levels of objects of analysis.
We will utilize the historical knowledge developed over the last three weeks to critically assess current affairs.
Phases of the Cold War (1947-62)
American strategy rested on two premises: (1) Soviet expansion must be halted; (2) this in turn would create the preconditions for undermining Soviet power.
Other key events:
Berlin Blockade/Crises, Marshall Plan
Results in a state of
A scaling back of hostilities and easing of strained relations. e.g.
Emergency Hotline established between Washington and Moscow
Movement against nuclear proliferation resulting in armament control through
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
This strategy was embodied in National Security Report 68 (
). Secret report issued in 1950 during Truman administration. Called for greater coordination to contain the Soviets. Defined US policy.
Driven by fear over Soviet possession of atomic weapons (1949), Sino-Soviet relations, and Soviet expansion elsewhere.
Characterized by heightened tensions and lack of diplomatic communication between Soviet and American blocs
China was an ally of the US, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union during WWII.
China was engaged in a Civil Wars between 1927-1936 and 1946-1950.
Following the defeat of the Japanese, China's future was unclear. The Western powers sided with Chiang and the Soviets were allied with Mao.
Although there were numerous factions, the two main competetors were the Kuomintang led by
and the Communist Party led by
Mao's victory was a huge moment in the early Cold War, with implications today regarding
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1962) was the closest the two sides came to full-scale war. The consequences of the crisis changed the nature of the Cold War.
Thirteen Day confrontation resulting from the deployment of Soviet nuclear ballistic missiles in Cuba.
A settlement was reached where the Soviet removed their missiles in Cuba and the US removed missiles in Turkey.
As with before, critical events shifted the nature of the Cold War. The Soviet war in Afghanistan in 1979.
Rivalry between US and USSR intensifies. Arms race. Star Wars program.
US backing of Mujahideen and bin Laden. Proxy War. Lasting consequences.
Rise of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985 signaled another shift.
Gorbachev instituted a series of reforms (
). Aimed at governmental transparency and economic openness.
Structurally, there was a collapse of
. Only one superpower. What comes next?
A new international order centered on economic rather than military strength? Changing definitions of power?
the new leader?
'What promised to be the American century will be halved by Japan's remarkable economic resurgence, or so they say' -
invades Kuwait. Expelled by international coalition of 34 nations led by US.
The New World Order takes shape with unipolar military power and multipolar economics.
US asserts itself as lone superpower. Issues of state sovereignty.
Disproportional causalities (hundreds vs tens of thousands)
US paid for effort (
Trouble in the Former Yugoslavia
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of conflicts that accompanied the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia was created after WWI. After WWII, became a federation of six socialist republics. Neutral through most of the Cold War.
Comprised of several ethnic minorities. Competition over self-determination in the post-Cold War period led to numerous conflicts.
Numerous war crimes, genocides, mass rapes, etc. Prominence of International Organizations (UN, NATO, International Criminal Court)
September 11, 2001
Almost 3,000 people killed. Suicide attack.
Four coordinated terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda on targets in New York City and Washington D.C. World Trade Center and Pentagon hit by hijacked airplanes.
North Korea Nuclear Weapons:
Pursuit of nuclear weapon. Attempts at disarmament by outside powers. Acquisition and testing of ballistic missiles. Still an issue.
Taiwan Strait Crisis (1995-6):
Intensification of issues of Taiwanese sovereignty. US missile technology. Countered by China. One-China Policy. Deployment of two US battle carrier groups.
Osama bin Laden, the leader of al-Qaeda, cited US support of Israel, US troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as reasons for the attack.
Resulted in a drastic shift in US Foreign Policy. Resulted in the War on Terror. Significance cannot be over-stated. Demonstrated that superpowers vulnerable to non-state actors.
is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement. Government of Afghanistan although not widely recognized. Afghan civil war (1996–2001).
Began in October 2001 and was led by the US. Coordination through NATO. Multinational coalition. NATO took command of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2003. Troops from 43 countries.
On 28 December 2014, NATO officially ended combat operations.
Prolonged conflict with large causalities. Huge civilian causalities and infrastructure damage.
Withdrawal of coalition forces in 2011 led to political unrest in Iraq. Enabled rise of Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL/ISIS).
War on Terror Elsewhere
Military operations in Pakistan. Use of Unmanned drones. Covert operation into Pakistan to kill bin Laden.
Although not necessarily directly tied to terrorist groups, the resurgence in
has also been combated through the War on Terror.
Drone strikes in Yemen. High civilian causalities.
US support for India in the Kashmir Conflict. Longstanding conflict regarding Indo-Pakistani border.
Israel-Palestine, the Arab Spring, Libya, Syria, N. Korea, the Congo, and elsewhere.
Is the World Safer?
The War on Terror has arguably been the most defining factor of the international system over the last decade.
As scholars of international relations, one of the things we must ask is whether or not the War on Terror has made the world safer.
What are the consequences of a superpower waging unilateral wars across the globe?
A historic process involving a fundamental shift in human social interaction that links distant communities and expands power relations across regions. Also a catch-all for the single global economy following the collapse of Soviet Union.
Next week we will begin discussing IR concepts such as nationalism and the nation-state.
'[T]here was widespread belief that Japan had succeeded in developing a superior economic system, one that had not only caught up with the other advanced economics but was now prepared to lead a new international system' -