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The Acidity of Popular Sodas

Science Fair Project
by

Lucas McConnell

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of The Acidity of Popular Sodas

Luke McConnell
8Th Grade
Mrs. Hendricks Which Popular Soda is the
worst for your Teeth? The purpose of this experiment is to
find the most harmful soda for your teeth.
This will help people find the right choice
of soda to protect their teeth. Someone
could come up with a soda that actually strengthens
teeth or create a way to remove the acidity from it. Purpose Hypothesis If I test the acidity of the sodas with ph paper than I can find the most acidic one. Then, I predict the most acidic soda will do the most damage to the tooth. Experimental Design I put Coke, Diet Pepsi,Fanta Orange, Sprite, and water in glass jars with baby teeth. I put lids on the jars. Then I left them to sit. I tested the ph level with ph paper at the beginning and the end of my experiment. My control group was in water. My independent variable is each soda and my dependent variable is the teeth. Materials -five glass jars with lids
-baby teeth
- ph paper
-one cup water
-one cup Sprite
-one cup Fanta Orange
-one cup Coke
-one cup Diet Pepsi Procedure 1. Collect materials
2. Test and record each liquids ph
3. Open each jar and place a tooth in it
4. Measure a cup of water and place in the first jar
5. Put one cup of each of the other sodas in separate jars
6. Tightly close all lids
7. Record observations
8. Examine the teeth every few days and record observations
9. Test the ph levels in jars at the end of the experiment. Data Analysais Background Research
Source 1 Brent, Lynnette. Why Chemistry Matters Acids and Bases. New York : NY, 1974. Print Ph stands for potential hydrogen. The ph scale is
1-6 = acidic, 7= neutral, 8-14= base. Indicators are used to measure ph. Some examples of indicators are ph paper, ph meter, litmus paper, and red cabbage juice.(p.8-9) The key features of acids are that they are corrosive, conduct electricity, and taste sour.(p.10-11) Any substance that keeps the same ph is called a buffer. Background Research
Source 2 Lenntech. Lenntech BV, Web Dec.,20,2012 Carbon dioxide is acidic and can only dissolve in water when pressure is added. If the pressure is released, than it will try to escape. The requirements to dissolve CO2 into water are o.9 vol/vol at 20 degrees Celsius. As the CO2 escapes, the acidity of the water decreases. When soda containers are opened, they make a hissing noise. This noise is created because the carbon dioxide is realeased. Therefore, the more the container is opened the less acidic the liquid. Background Research
Source 3 Carol Baldwin, Material Matters: Acids and Bases. Chicago, IL, 2004. Print Acids react with carbonates to make salt, water, and carbon dioxide. (p.28) Carbon dioxide is added to soda to make it fizzy. Some dissolves in the liquid to make carbonic acid. This makes soft drinks bad for your teeth. (p.38) Background Research Soda Labels


Sodium
Diet Pepsi - 1%- 35mg
Sprite -3% - 65mg
Coke - 2% - 45mg
Fanta Orange - 2% - 55mg

Sugar
Diet Pepsi- 0g
Sprite-38g
Coke- 39g
Fanta Orange-44g Based on 12 fl oz of soda. liquid ph before ph after damage
level (1-5) sodium%
mg Water Sprite Fanta
Orange Diet Pepsi Coke 4 7 3.5 4 4 7 4 4 5 5 1 5 0%
0mg 3%
65mg 2%
55mg 1%
35mg 2%
45mg Conclusion I did this experiment to see the effects of soda on teeth. What I found is that soda can do a great deal of damage to your teeth. Water did not affect its tooth because it has no corrosives. The Sprite weakened the tooth enough to make it crack in half. The Fanta Orange stained the tooth and made the enamel weak. I have found that Coke is the worst soda for your teeth out of the liquids I tested. It blackened the tooth, weakened the tooth, and made a slime around the tooth. Although water is always the best for your teeth, Diet Pepsi dealt the least damage to the tooth out of the sodas. The Pepsi only stained the tooth, so brushing your teeth is still recommended. This does not support my hypothesis because Coke did not have the highest acidity, but it did cause the greatest damage. My hypothesis was wrong because of an error in data collection I believe. The ph paper I used was dipped on one side on one soda and the other on a different soda the merging sodas might effect the acidity. The experiment might have better results if the soda was replaced every day. I could also use small jars to minimize carbon dioxide loss. This would speed up the experiment because the soda would not lose its acidity. I believe the amount of salt in the soda may have an affect on the decay rate of teeth. Data Analysais continued Sprite 12/20/12
bubbles on
tooth
12/21/12
some orange
on tooth
12/23/12
stained
orange
completely
12/24-31/12
no change
1/6/13
enamal chips
off 12/20/12
none
12/21/12
stained black
12/23/12
completely
stained black
12/24-31/12
same
1/6/13
hard 12/20/12
none
12/21/12
stained black
12/23/12
completely
stained black
12/24-31/12
none
1/3/13
slime forms
1/6/12
cracked in two 12/20/12
bubbles on
tooth
12/21/12
less bubbles
12/23/12
no change
12/24-31/12
no change
1/6/13
tooth cracked Coke Fanta Orange Diet Pepsi Water The tooth in water always stayed the same Results Have you ever heard that soda is bad for your teeth?
I soaked teeth in soda for 17 days. All the soda I used had a ph of (4), except for Orange Fanta. It had a ph of (3.5) and water had a ph of (7). I obtained my research at the library, on the internet, and by reading the soda labels. The ph in the sodas changed over time as the carbon dioxide was separated from the liquid. I rated the damage with one being the most damage to the tooth and with five as the least damage to the tooth. I assigned each liquid a number according to the damage it caused the tooth. Results continued Bubbles found on the teeth were caused by carbon dioxide being caught on the tooth. The discoloration was caused by the pigment dying the tooth. The teeth in the Coke, Sprite and Fanta Orange cracked when I handled them because the acid ate at the calcium trying to dissolve it. The tooth in the water never changed, and the Diet Pepsi tooth was only stained. Sugar feeds the bacteria that live in your saliva. The waste the bacteria creates is acidic which causes cavities. The teeth I used did not have this bacteria because they were washed. 4 2 3 Background Research
Source 5 The Argosy. The Argosy BV, Web. 1/8/13 Sugar feeds bacteria that produces acids. These acids damage your teeth. However, sugar itself cannot harm your teeth.
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