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Ethiopia’s Resistance Against European Imperialism
Transcript of Ethiopia’s Resistance Against European Imperialism
and Kiran Thottapilly
The Division of Africa
The division of Africa started around 1880.
The discoveries of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1886 in Africa increased European interest in colonizing the continent. Every European country competed in this race in conquering Africa.
In 1884-85, 14 European countries met at the Berlin Conference to discuss the division of Africa.
No African ruler was invited to attend any meetings.
By 1914, only Ethiopia remained free from European control.
Ethiopia’s Successful Resistance
Ethiopia was the only African nation that successfully resisted against the Europeans.
Its victory was due to one man- Menelik II.
Menelik II successfully played Italians, French, British against each other and in the meantime Menelik built a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia which was used to defend from other countries trying to invade Ethiopia.
Europeans yearned for more resources to fuel industrial production.
Africa was a major source of raw material and base of industrial products.
Europeans seized Africa for this reason.
Refuted European actions to colonize their lands.
Europeans were superior in weaponry.
All the Resistance attempts failed in the end, with the exception of Ethiopia.
Menelik II, (r.1889-1909)
Emperor of Ethiopia.
He expanded the empire while Europeans were carving up other parts of Africa
Menelik was a Strong leader because he lead his armies atrocities against his enemies which include mutilation, killings and large scale slavery.
Repelled an Italian invasion
He tried to modernize Ethiopia.
Battle of Adowa
The Battle of Adowa (Adwa) was a stunning victory for Ethiopia but a disaster for Italy.
Shorty after Menelik II signed a treaty with Italy in 1889, he found differences between the wording of the treaty in the Ethiopian language and in Italian.
Menelik II thought that he was giving up a tiny portion of North Ethiopia but instead Italy claimed all of Ethiopia as a protectorate which forced Menelik to declare war.
In 1896, one of the greatest wars in the history of Africa- the Battle of Adowa- Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and kept their nation independent.
Ethiopia’s new capital
Menelik changed the capital from Entoto to Addis Ababa the present day capital of Ethiopia.
He did this to build a modern capital
He built schools and hospitals.
He introduced electricity and the telephone.
Later he built a railway in his capital, all with the help of the French. (This linked Addis Ababa to Djibouti and promoted trade.)
All the modernization made Ethiopia more inviting.
Colonialism reduced warfare
Humanitarian efforts improved sanitation and provided hospitals
Lifespans increased and literacy rate grew
To promote the economy railroads, dams and telephone/telegraph lines were built
Most of Africa lost land and Independence
introduction to new diseases killed many
many lost in war
men had to work for colonials to support their families
Africa was divided up by the europeans
artificial boundaries created civil war in africa
Ethiopian forces, win the battle. Painted 1965-75.