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A Historical Perspective of Teacher Evaluation Models

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Sayre Ludlow

on 7 May 2010

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Transcript of A Historical Perspective of Teacher Evaluation Models

Double click anywhere & add an idea 1940's &50's http://www.tapsystem.org/ A Historical Perspective of Teacher Evaluation: Past & Present Models 1960's & 70's 1980's 1990's to Today Danielson's Framework for Teaching Increased accountability for student learning and performance, based on data No Child Left Behind (2002) Rapid changes in school reform Pay for Performance Public perception of educational failure Focus on teacher development as it relates to student performance Source: http://www.danielsongroup.org/theframeteach.htm "The Framework may be used for many purposes, but its full value is realized as the foundation for professional conversations among practitioners as they seek to enhance their skill in the complex task of teaching. The Framework may be used as the foundation of a school or district’s mentoring, coaching, professional development, and teacher evaluation processes, thus linking all those activities together and helping teachers become more thoughtful practitioners." "The Framework for Teaching is a research-based set of components of instruction . . . grounded in a constructivist view of learning and teaching. " The Work of Charlotte Danielson Includes:
The Framework for Teaching
Teacher Evaluation
Coaching
New Teacher Mentoring
Professional Growth Plans
Professional Collaboration
Classroom Observation
Teacher Leadership Much of the work at this time is the basis for current frameworks for teacher evaluation, such as Danielson's.
The Hunter Model, developed by Madeline Hunter and others at UCLA, emphasized teacher-centered, structured classrooms. http://nerds.unl.edu/pages/preser/sec/assessment/hunter.html http://template.aea267.iowapages.org/lessonplan/ Madeline Hunter's Lesson Plan: Teacher Evaluation Practices at this time: Focused on teacher traits such as “voice, appearance, emotional stability, trustworthiness, warmth, enthusiasm” (Danielson, p. 13) The belief was that these traits were indicative and predictive indicators of effective teaching. Failures of this model: later research in this area shows a very weak link between these traits and effective teaching; actual student performance was not really considered in the model, just what a good teacher "looks like".
This model is very subjective. You might imagine how a teacher who was essentially being rated on personality traits might have fared with an evaluator who did not like him or her, no matter how the students were performing. Failures of this model: Evaluation checklists and rating scales based on her model were one-dimensional, in that they continued to focus more on the teacher than the teacher’s effects on student achievement.
Her model is still widely accepted and practiced today, enduring as an effective lesson plan. Models for teacher practices and prescriptive teaching were the foundation of this model, with the goal of improving student achievement. The work of Madeline Hunter http://a100educationalpolicy.pbworks.com/f/1258680383/AVERAGE.jpg Lack of student achievement in Science and Math drove reforms during this time. Improvement of student’s acquisition of basic skills became the target of teacher evaluation systems. Less focus on the teacher and more on student performance. At the time, Teacher Effectiveness Research, or Research on Teacher Effects was a growing field. Clinical supervision and classroom observation methods were developed that better described the picture of the whole classroom, as well as measuring teacher behavior. Research on Teacher Effects did demonstrate correlations between student performance and skill acquisition, and the behavior of the teacher. The goal of this model was to set a standard format of teaching practices that teachers could employ in order to teach lessons. “Good teaching” was being able to effectively apply the seven-nine components of the Hunter Model. However, the model focuses heavily upon teacher-centered instruction; today’s classrooms have moved in the direction of student-centered learning. The Hunter Model was also used for teacher evaluation, and adherence to and effective use of the model was often the sole basis of a teacher’s evaluation. Lingering benefits of the Hunter Model are the current focus of staff development that is instructionally focused. Today: student engagement in learning and student performance data is becoming the primary measure of a teacher's effectiveness, and is embedded in current evaluation systems.
"This photograph of about 1950 shows . . . a typical 'yesterday' classroom. The desks are arranged to centre attention on the teacher; they probably stayed in this position all the year; there is little scope for any activity other than sitting; and no use is made of the walls. It can be compared with photos of the 1970s classrooms on other pages” — K-6 Best Years of Their Lives?, Primary English Teaching Association (of NSW), 1979. http://www.baskent.edu.tr/~kostur/ilginc/classrooms.html “The modern 'open space' classroom represents a huge change of environment after centuries of 'screwed down desks in serried rows'.” — k-6 etc., 1979 http://www.baskent.edu.tr/~kostur/ilginc/classrooms.html eagle.cs.kent.edu/ WME/images/classlaptop.jpg "This game lets the player practice being a teacher. In this game your character teaches at a new school, in a new town. When you first start you only have four students but as you progress thoughout the game you get more students.

In this game you teach the students different subjects such as: arithmetic, geometry, reading, writing, drawing, biology, history, geography, music, and pottery. After some lessons . . . it lets you practice correcting the students work.

This is a good game for anybody who wants to become a teacher, or is studying to become a teacher (like I am now) because I would like to become a teacher one day because I love kids." Source:
http://www.amazon.com/review/R1QN7N12G66HUQ/ref=cm_cr_pr_viewpnt#R1QN7N12G66HUQ The Madeline Hunter Model of Mastery Learning

Tomorrow's Teachers? Advances in technology and their applications to student learning and outputs are evident in today's classrooms. Today's classrooms are filled with computers, and students work independently, in collaborative groups, as well as teacher led lessons in order to maximize learning and student achievement. 21st Century Learning Themes and Skills Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Creativity and Innovation
Communication and Collaboration
Flexibility and Adaptability
Initiative and Self-Direction
Social and Cross-Cultural Skills
Productivity and Accountability
Leadership and Responsibility Global Awareness
Financial, Economic, Business and Entrepreneurial Literacy
Civic Literacy
Health Literacy
Environmental Literacy
Information communication and technology (ICT) literacy Source: http://www.p21.org/route21/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6&Itemid=3 “We want to challenge everyone -- parents, teachers, school administrators -- to raise standards, by having the best teachers and principals, by tying student achievement to assessments of teachers, by making sure that there's a focus on low-performing schools, by making sure our students are prepared for success in a competitive 21st century economy and workplace,” said President Obama. Source: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/president-obama-announce-plans-race-top-expansion RACE TO THE TOP (RTTT) Global competition, technology advances and a "shrinking world" drive education reform Developing Better Teachers and Increasing Accountability for Student Performance
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