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Transcript of Westward Expansion
Westward Expansion and the belief in Manifest Destiny
President John Quincy Adams
Annexation of Texas
Invasion of Florida
President Andrew Jackson 1829-1837
The Oregon Territory
President James K. Polk 1845-1849
Indian Removal Act
Thomas Jefferson set his sights on the Florida Territory after completing the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
In 1804 he sent two diplomats to buy the territory from Spain, but Spain did not want to sell.
Americans wanted the U.S. to take over Florida-they wanted to build plantations and gain profit from Florida's rich soil.
Many slaves ran away from Georgia to Florida to gain their freedom
Seminole Indians from Florida raided land in Georgia
Spanish Government did little to stop either problem which made Americans even more eager to take Florida.
Invasion of Florida (1818-1819)
Passed by Congress in 1830 and supported by Jackson
Gave the Federal Government the power to "trade" native held land in East of Mississippi for land to the West.
Indian Territory-located in present day Oklahoma Created in 1834
Trail of Tears 1835-forced journey West
Indian Removal Act 1830
In 1818 President Monroe sent Andrew Jackson to Georgia to stop the Indian Raids.
He was told to chase them into Florida
But do NOT conquer Florida
Against orders Jackson marched troops into Florida.
He was able to capture almost every Spanish military fort
He executed soldiers who did not obey him
Replaced the Spanish Governor of Florida with an American
Executed several Englishmen that were suspected of arming the Native Americans
President Monroe was fearful that Jackson's actions would lead to war; but he kept by Jackson's side telling Spain that they:
Must set up a decent government that could stop the raids
Sell Florida to the U.S.
The Spanish were also fearful of war and decided to sell.
in 1819 the Spanish Government sold Florida to the U.S. for $5 million dollars
Americans gained land
at a cheap price
America was able to
expand the size of
Other nations viewed
Jackson and the U.S,
thieves that stole Spains land.
Spain viewed Jackson's actions as uncalled for and believed that he acted illegally by
U.S. Supreme Court objected to these practices in:
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
Worcester v. Georgia 1832
President Jackson and his government ignored the Supreme Court rulings and forced the Native Americans to leave their lands they had lived on for generations
In winter of 1831 the Choctaw became the first nation to be expelled from their land altogether
They made the journey to the indian territory on foot without food, supplies, or help from the government.
Thousands of people died along the way.
In 1836 the Federal Government drove the Creeks from their land for the last time.
3,500 of the 15,000 Creeks who set out for Oklahoma did not survive
During the Fall and Winter of 1838 and 1839 the Cherokees were forcibly moved West by the U.S. Government
About 4,000 Cherokees died on this forced march known as the Trail of Tears
The Oregon Territory 1818-1846
A huge area that laid between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains north of California.
What is now Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Montana and Wyoming, about half of what is now British Columbia,
4 nations held claims to the Oregon Territory in the early 1800s:
U.S., Great Britain, Spain, and Russia
Many Americans wanted control of the territory to gain access to the Pacific Ocean
Secretary of State John Quincy Adams played a key role in promoting this goal.
In 1819 Adams negotiated the Adams-Onis treaty with Spain:
Spanish agreed to set the limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border
And give up any claim to Oregon.
In 1824 Russia also surrendered its claim to the land south of Alaska.
Only Britain remained..
in 1818 Adams worked out an agreement with Britain for joint occupation of the Oregon area.
in 1825 Adams, after he becomes president, he proposes that the 2 nations divide Oregon along the 49th Parallel.
Unable to resolve their disputes they both agree to extend the joint occupation.
"Oregon Fever" swept through the early 1840s
settlers followed the Oregon Trail on a difficult 2,000 mile journey
Between 1840 and 1845 the number of American settlers in the area increased from 500 to 5,000
While British population remained around 700
Settlers in Oregon believed the U.S. should have sole ownership of the territory.
Oregon became a big issue during the 1844 presidential election.
James K. Polk supported American claims for sole ownership of Oregon ("Fifty-four Forty or Fight")
Henry Clay did not take a strong stance on the Oregon issue
Polk won 170 electoral votes to 105 for Clay
President Polk was fueled by Manifest Destiny and determined to make Oregon a part of the U.S.
June 1846 the two countries compromised
-peacefully setting the boundary between the American and British portions of Oregon at the 49th Parallel.
The Annexation of Texas 1845
Mexico gains its independence from Spain in 1820 and Texas becomes a part of Mexico.
-Mexico welcomes settlers to poplate Texas
-A large group of Americans led by Stephen Austin settled
-Austin inherits a large amount of land in Texas from his father (who had recieved the land from the Spanish government)
-After Mexico declares independence, Austin is allowed to stay on his land
By the 1830s the Americans outnumbered the Mexicans.
Attempts by the Mexican government to regulate the American communities led to a rebellion.
American's wanting to create their own government
Mexican government would not let anymore Americans settle in Texas.
In 1836 the Mexican leader (Antonio Lopez Santa Anna) attacked 180 Texan-American soldiers at the Alamo.
All 180 Americans were killed
This led to a rally cry "Remember the Alamo!" as Americans prepared for battle.
At the Battle of San Jacinto-Americans defeated the Mexicans and won their independence.
Texas was now its own country
known as the Lone Star Republic because of the single star on their flag
Americans began wanting the government to annex (add) Texas into the U.S.
Some feared that adding Texas would lead to a war with Mexico
in 1844 President Polk convinced Cogress to add Texas to the U.S.
Americans happy because achieving Manifest Destiny
Gained farmland for cotton plantations
broadens the differences in the US over slavery
Mexico views annexation as act of war
sets off Mexican-American War
On April 1846 Mexican soldiers fired on American troops who were patrolling near the border.
President Polk had been waiting for an opportunity and was able to launch a war with Mexico.
President Polk believed the US had a "Manifest Destiny" to spread across the continent and used this idea to convince citizens that war was necessary.
He also wanted to gain lands of New Mexico and California and believed by defeating the Mexicans he could do just that.
The Americans attacked in California and Mexico.
They won nearly all of the major battles.
Captured Mexico City (capital) in September 1847
In 1848 Mexico asked for a peace treaty
Mexico gave up territory known as the Mexican Cession to the U.S.:
California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming
The US agreed to pay $15 million dollars for it
The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo:
the peace treaty between Mexico and US
Established the Rio Grande as the US-Mexican border
Mexico recognized the US annexation of Texas
America gained a huge amount of useful land and proved its military strength.
over 20,000 American and Mexican soldiers were killed, and Mexicans argued that Manifest Destiny was an excuse Americans used to steal land.
California Gold Rush
Gold was discovered on January 24, 1848 by James Wilson Marshall
he found flakes of gold in the American River at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains near California
Marshall was a carpenter from New Jersey. He was working to build a water-powered sawmill for John Sutter.
John Sutter was the founder of the New Switzerland Colony which would later become the city of Sacramento, California.
Marshall and Sutter tried to keep the news under wraps but word got out.
By mid March at least one newspaper was reporting that large quantities of gold were being found at Sutter's Mill
By mid June three-fourths of the male population of San Francisco had left town for the gold mines.
number of miners reached 4,000 by August
Later the news would reach the East Coast where reports would be skeptical at first.
The Gold Fever would be kicked off after December 1848 by President Polk's inaugural address.
Thousands of would be gold miners (called 49ers) traveled across mountains or by sea, leaving their families and hometowns. They borrowed money, mortgaged property, and spent their life savings to make the journey to California.
By the end of the year the non-native population of California was about 100,000.
To accommodate the needs of the 49ers:
Gold mining towns sprung up
with shops, saloons, and other businesses
(they sought to make their own gold rush fortune)
The population increase caused overcrowding in the mining camps that led to chaos:
towns growing lawless
violence becoming widespread
San Francisco developed a bustling economy and became the central metropolis of the new frontier.
The Gold Rush helped California to be admitted to the union as the 31st state.
Compromise of 1850 allowed it to enter as a free state.
Mining was difficult and dangerous work that required luck, skill, and hard work.
After 1850 the surface gold in California largley disappeared.
As gold became more difficult to find the miners were driven from independence into wage labor.
The new technique of hydraulic mining was developed in 1853 and brought large profits, but destroyed the regions landscape.
The gold rush peaked by 1852 at about $81 million being pulled from the ground.
profits began to decline gradually after 1852
by 1857 profits were only around $45 million.
Despite the decline of profits settlement continued in California and by the end of the decade the population was about 380,000.
The California Gold Rush
President James Monroe 1817-1825