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The Butterfly Project

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Chloe Yopp

on 15 May 2015

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Transcript of The Butterfly Project

Macromolecules and Cells
The one main thing in common between the caterpillar and the butterfly is how they are both made of macromolecules. Macromolecules are very similar to other types of molecules, the difference is the presence of carbon. Every living thing, or organism, contains carbon.
Macromolecules and Cells
The chrysalis that a caterpillar creates is made of silk which is a protein fiber. Protein is one of the "Big Four" macromolecules and is made of the monomer amino acid. Caterpillar silk is very strong and sometimes even used for making silk items, as opposed to using silk from silkworms.
Macromolecules and Cells
Caterpillars are herbivores and they mainly eat cheeseweed, thistles, and fiddleneck. These are all plants which give the caterpillars the quick energy of glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar, which is a carbohydrate. Plants cells also have a cell well, this distinguishes them from animal cells. The cell walls are made of cellulose which is also a carbohydrate.
Macromolecules and Cells
The Butterfly Project By: Chloe Yopp
Caterpillars and butterflies both are composed of animal cells. Animals cells are protected by cell membrane which is made up of a phospholipid bilayer. Phospholipid bilayer is a fancy way of saying a layer of oil/fat on the outside of the cell. Lipids are also one of the Big 4 macromolecules with a polar head that attracts water (hydrophilic) and non polar tails which repel water (hydrophobic).
Cells: Structure
Caterpillar cells are structured just like any other animal cells which differs from the cells of the plants they eat. Plant cells contain a cell wall which makes their structure more rigid. Animal cells have a flexible cell membrane which allows them to move and flex any way they want. This structure is called the fluid mosaic and its important for caterpillars since they have to move their muscles so much to crawl around and flex.
Cells: Photosynthesis
Caterpillars eat many plants, some of which were previously listed. All plants go through photosynthesis since they are producers and they have to create their own food. During this process, carbon dioxide enters through pores in the leaf called stomata. Then they move throughout the leaf to parts which contain chlorophyll, the chloroplasts. This mixed with sunlight leads to the breaking down of water and carbon dioxide in the plant. Then the glucose which is produced and also the oxygen is let out through the stomata.
Cells: Transport and Energy
When caterpillars eat different varieties of leaves and plants, those particles are still very big even after digesting them. These particles have to be moved outside of the cell by active transport. Active transport means that the waste is going from low to high concentration so it requires energy. The energy comes from the ATP created in mitochondria when the bond between the second and third phosphate group in ATP is broken. This process is called exocystosis.
Cells: Cellular Respiration
In order for animal cells to generate energy, they must go through a process called cellular respiration. There are 3 types of aerobic respiration: Kreb's Cycle, Glycolosis, and the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). Glycolosis is the breaking down of glucose and it prodcuces the least amount of energy, Kreb's Cycle creates a medium amount of energy and the occurs in the mitochondria, and ETC also occurs inthe mitochondria and produces the greatest amount of ATP. In total, this process produces 36 ATP.
Cell Division
While in the chrysalis, caterpillars dissolve into a soup-like substance. Then they us this "soup", which is very high in protein, to start rapid cell division. This division is required to from the wings, eyes, antennae, and other important features of the full-grown butterfly.
Cell Division
As shown in the data table, caterpillars grow very quickly before they go into their chrysalis. At this rate of growth, the caterpillar’s cells must be growing and dividing rapidly. If your cells aren't growing, then you can’t be growing and this goes for caterpillars too.

Cell Division
Cell Division
DNA and Protein Synthesis
Caterpillars are eukaryotic organisms. This means that they are multicellular and contain a nucleus and other normal organelle structures. The DNA of a caterpillar is located in the nucleus just as it is in all other eukaryotes.
DNA and Protein Synthesis
Caterpillars have two sides to their DNA: the caterpillar side and the butterfly side. During the caterpillar’s lifetime, only the caterpillar side of the DNA is used and the butterfly side is quiet and doesn’t show through. Once the caterpillar goes into the chrysalis and it is “mush” the imaginal cells reorganize the proteins and DNA. Once the butterfly emerges, the butterfly side of the DNA has been turned on and the caterpillar side has been turned off.

DNA and Protein Synthesis
DNA and Protein Synthesis
After doing a research on over 500 Monarch butterfly genes, a new study has come out about the butterflies possibly fleeting iconic color scheme. Due to a genetic mutation, a new string of black and white monarch butterflies have started to appear, mainly in Hawaii. When they are reproducing, it is overpowering the orange color and taking the dominant role in the genetic cross. If this pattern continues, the orange color will go completely away, and there will only be black and white monarchs.

Coevolution is a type of evolution where two species affect each others' evolution patterns. Here is an example of this happening in nature. Overtime, butterflies have evolved to include the brilliant colors they do today. A really long time ago, its wings were a dull brown and grey and the butterfly was easily visible to predators. With one less transportation source to rely on, flowers couldn’t reproduce as often as possible. Over millions of years some wings would evolve to become bright colors resembling those of flowers, and the butterflies with that trait would survive. After survival of the fittest ran its natural course, the butterflies would all have vibrant pigments and pollination was a much more successful process.

Geographic Isolation is the separation of two populations of the same species by some sort of physical barrier. Butterflies all originated from a moth-like common ancestor. As the continents shifted and mountains were being formed, each population would evolve differently due to geographic isolation. Butterflies who lived in more of a tundra would often have white wings to stay unseen from predators. In South America the butterflies have longer, more narrow, wings to navigate the thick and full forests. All of this is due to the separated populations evolving.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. With butterflies, a good example of this is bats. Both species, bats and butterflies, have wings that they use for flying tog get around and go places. With butterflies being insects and bats being mammals, they come from completely different lineages, but they have evolved similarly.

Adaptive Radiation is when an organism diversifies rapidly into many new forms particularly because of an environmental change. A species of butterfly called Heliconius is a very powerful example of adaptive radiation. Based on patterns of expression Heliconius butterflies have had very noticeable changes over the past years. As a flower died out, it would slowly change evolve to a new color. It was adapting to aspects of its environment.
Some butterflies the have already come out of their chrysalis have bright orange on the outside of wings while others have a much duller color. While they remain the same species, there is still genetic variation in the species. This is when the two alleles work together to make a new shade. This change could be passed down through more generations to create a change.

There is a specific mutation in a butterfly gene that has codominance. This changes the alleles, where both are expressed in part. That is why some butterflies have spots, stripes, or other variations of multiple colors. Blood type is also codominant.
The colorful wings of butterflies have pinpointed butterflies as an perfect species to study Mendelian genetics. Mass mating and single-pair between butterflies with distinct wing patterns have been used, and are currently being used. Scientist are recreating Mendel’s experiment with butterflies to find out anything else they can.
Caterpillars divide their cells by going through the process of mitosis. During mitosis a cell lines up all of its chromosomes in the center and then spindle fibers split up the chromosomes. Then the cell splits in two and each cell contains identical genetic information.
Protein synthesis is the process in which DNA encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins. The first part of this process is transcription, where mRNA is made from one strand of the DNA double helix and then the mRNA is sent to the cytoplasm. In caterpillars and butterflies, the transcription of the DNA is only done on the side of the DNA which is “awake” at that time. If it is in the caterpillar stage, then transcription takes part on the caterpillar side of the DNA and if it is in the butterfly stage it uses the butterfly side.

Once protein synthesis is complete, one of the products created are enzymes. These enzymes assist with many of the tasks needed for survival. Such tasks include dissolving the caterpillar's tissues during the pupa stage and secreting between the layers of dissolving muscle attachment so an old cuticle shed
Cell Membrane Model
Glucose Molecule
Photosynthesis Model
Cellular Respiration Model
Basic Mitosis Model
Caterpillar DNA Example
Genetic Variation In Butterflies
Codominance Example
Geographic Isolation Example
Convergent Evolution Example
Animal Behavior
Caterpillars are very active creatures. In the wild, caterpillars eat a lot of food, so they area always on the move. Moving from leaf to leaf and flower to flower is how they spend most fo their life. This is because they must become big enough for metamorphosis. If they aren't big enough, they will most likely have deformities or die in the cocoon.
Animal Behavior
When a caterpillar is ready to pupate and create their chrysalis, they try to find a higher up spot. This is so they can get away from predators. A few of these predators include: birds, wasps, a spiders.
Animal Behavior
Since caterpillars have so many predators, they have some defense mechanisms to protect themselves. One of these is to make a J shape with their bodies and their cocoon. Another is the webbing they sometimes spin around themselves. This webbing pulls the leaves around the caterpillar as a little protection shield.
Animal Behavior
A caterpillar's cocoon has many excess fluids inside of it. When a butterfly emerges, this excess fluid is stuck all over their body' s, especially their wings. The new butterfly must dry it's wings off as soon as it emerges from the chrysalis because having this on the wings for too long can cause damage.
Caterpillar Moving On Leaf
Example Of Protective Webbing
Caterpillars are biotic factors in their environment. Biotic factors are livng things. Caterpillars interact with both biotic and abiotic factors. Some of these abiotic, or nonliving factors, are soil, the sun, and water. With all the predator-prey relationships they have, interactions with biotic factors are frequent.
There are many populations of these butterflies all around the world. Populations are a group of a species living in the same place at the same time. They have to compete for resources such as food and shelter. All the organisms in that specific population also interbreed with each other as well.
Once a butterfly emerges from the cocoon, they have a very special niche, or job in their community. Butterflies pollinate flowers everywhere. This means that the flowers can reproduce. If a butterfly population starts to die out, so will the flowers of that area. This also works vice versa because butterflies get their food from the flowers too.
There are many limiting factors for butterflies living in certain environments. Butterflies have to live in a warm temperature, so if its cold they either migrate further south or they die. Other limiting factors are the types of leaves there are to eat for certain species. Even certain predators can be limiting factors.
Butterfly Pollinating a Flower
Butterflies Migrating South For Winter
Basic Information
Name: Painted Lady Butterflies

Scientific Name: Vanessa Cardui
Meiosis is the cellular reproduction and division of the sex cells: egg and sperm. In females they are born with all their eggs and they divide quickly just as they do in mitosis, except meiosis creates 4 cells. Butterflies mate by touching their abdomens together and the male fertilizes the eggs. Then the females lay their eggs on leaves to develop and hatch.
Meiosis Model
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