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Transcript of Diffusion
firstname.lastname@example.org The basic idea Outcome in unit i For example:
Level of democracy Outcome in units j For example:
Level of democracy Unit G Unit F Unit E Unit D Unit C Unit B Unit A The classic comparative politics perspective Property of country A Phenomenon in country A Explanation Explanations are to be found within a unit
Units are independent from one another (no interdependence) The interdependence and diffusion perspective Units can influence one another
Policies can be interdependent
Interdependence is a result of (positive or negative) externalities
Policies can diffuse as a result of interdependence "Diffusion theorists of different stripes share the view that the policy choices of one country are shaped by the choices of others, whereas conventional accounts of policy choices point only to domestic conditions." Dobbin/Simmons/Garrett, 2007: 450 Externalities positive negative Policies as strategic substitutes Policies as strategic complements Free rider dynamics Advantages of moving early Convergence of policies Advantages of moving late Divergence of policies War of attrition (strategic delay or inaction) Competitive races Mechanisms of diffusion Competition
Coercion Empirical models of diffusion What goes into w? Specifying w For example:
Trade relations w cannot be estimated but has to be derived: Minimum number of entries in w (time invariant symmetric matrix):
(n*n-n)/2 A non-policy example:
The diffusion of democracy O'Loughlin et al., 1998: 563 The way ahead Conditional diffusion
Getting w right
Endogenizing w Dobbin et al., 2007: 450 Policies as strategic substitutes Free rider dynamics Advantages of moving late Divergence of policies War of attrition (strategic delay or inaction) Policies as strategic complements Advantages of moving early Competitive races Convergence of policies