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Lana Abu-Ltaif

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Transcript of Cells

Exploring life
Levels of Organization
All Organisms are made up of cells, no matter what size it is.
3. 2. 8A
3.1. 8A

Electron Microscope
Light Microscope
Characteristics of Life
There are 6-8 characteristics of life. Anything that includes all characteristics of life is a living thing, scientific term is an organism. There are organisms called unicellular organisms, they consit of only one cell.

Organisms that include only one cell are called unicellular organisms. These include bacteria, Amoeba , Paramaecium, Euglena, Trypanosoma and, Plasmodium.

Unicellular Organisms
Multicellular Organisms
Cells that are made up of two or more cells are called multicellular organisms. They include, dogs, trees, humans, animals,

All living things include structures and particular functions
Response to Stimuli
Growth and Development
Evolution and
Universal Genetic Code
Non living
1. Cell
2. Tissue
3. Organ

4. Organ System
5. Organism
6. Population

7. Community
A living thing that may be unicellular or multicellular
A group of similar tissues working together like the heart or lungs.
Smallest level at which life exists
Several populations of organisms living together
A group of one kind of organism living in an area
Group of similar cells working together
Organ Systems is a group of organs that work together to perform a certain task.
8. Ecosystem
All living and non living thins together in a similar environment like the desert.
9. Biome
A major ecological community type
1. Atom
Smallest part of an element or compound
www.ducksters.com - biome
www.kidsgeo.com- ecosystem
scienceblogs.com- community
textbook.s-anand.net- organism
www.malaysia-today.net - population
www.tutorvista.com- organ system
www.tutorvista.com- Organ
en.wikipedia.org- Tissue
www.universetoday.com- atom
en.wikipedia.org - cells
commons.wikimedia.org- molecule
biology.tutorvista.com- organelle
2. Molecule
Smallest part of an element or compound
3. Organelle
Levels of organisms
Characteristics of life
notions-english-disciple.blogspot.com- Characteristics of life
www.classroomfreebies.com -Characteristics of life
4biology.weebly.com -Characteristics of life
anisahafifah.wordpress.com -organization (Multi/Uni)
demo.mastermindtutor.com -organization (Multi)
www.glogster.com -organization (Uni)
kids.britannica.com -growth
php.med.unsw.edu.au -development
meredithbond.com - external response
www.ok4me2.net -external response
landerkhadel.blogspot.com -Internal response
biology.tutorvista.com - food web/energy
missmattner.weebly.com -food web/energy
feminspire.com -homeostasis
www.smithsonianmag.com- evolution
king.portlandschools.org -adaptation
www.imb-jena.de - genetic code

Cell Differentiation: A Process when cells become different types of cells.
Multicellular vs. Unicellular
Both contain DNA and ribsomes
Both are organisms made of
a cell or more
Both contain cytoplasm
and a cell membrance
Organisms that have many cells
Multicellular organisms are larger
and have more organelles
An injury of some cells does
affect the organism because the cell
can be replaced.
Examples are plants, animals,
dogs, cats, birds, fish, people etc..
Organisms that have only one cell
Unicellular organisms are smaller and have less organelles
An injury of the cell can cause death to the organism.
Examples are Amoebae, bacteria and Paramecium
Body Tube: Connects to the eyepiece and
that connects to the objective lenses.
Eyepiece lens: 10X or 15X power. Used to
look at the object magnified.
Arm: Used to support the tube
Base: Used for support by holding the
microscope together
Stage Clips: Stage clips hold the slide in place.
Nose piece: Holds the objective lenses, used to
rotate to a different power lens.
Objective lenses: There are 3-4 lenses. They are used
for magnification each at a different power.
Diaphragm: Rotating disk used to vary the intensity and size the light.
Light Source: It helps make the object you are looking
It brightens up the view.
Coarse Adjustment knob: Used to focus the image on low or medium power.
Fine Adjustment Knob: Used for focusing the finer details
The Light Microscope
is 1,500 times. The
is about 0.2 Micrometers, two millionth of a meter. Its
can be nonliving or living and can be blood cells, some cells have to be stained with a dye in order to see detail.

are the simple light microscope or the compound light microscope.
The Electron Microscope
is 100,000 times. The
is as small as 0.2 nanometers or two- billionths of a meter. The resolution is up to 1000 times greater than a light microscope. Its
are dead or microscopic. The
two main types
are the transmission electron microscope (TEMs) and the scanning electron microscope (SEMs)
The Cell
Plant Cell
water.me.vccs.edu- Light microscope label
philbipro.blogspot.com -Light microscope
uic.igc.gulbenkian.pt -Electron microscope
The Cell
biology-pictures.blogspot.com -Animal Cell
henabio.wordpress.com -Plant Cell
www.123rf.com - microscopic Cell (2 pics)
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
cell wall
Prokaryotic Cells
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Golgi Apparatus
Cell membrance
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus.
Some examples of specialized plant cell types include:
Parenchyma Cells - although not highly specialized, these cells synthesize and store organic products in the plant.

Collenchyma Cells - help to support plants while not restraining growth due to their lack of secondary walls and the absence of a hardening agent in their primary walls.

Sclerenchyma Cells - provide a support function in plants, but unlike collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid.
Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus.
Cells are the smallest level at which life exists
Eukaryotic Cells
Cell Types
www.phschool.com - Eukaryotic & Prokaryotic Cell
3.1. 8A
3. 1. 8C
Parts of the Cell
(Cell Organelles)

Animal Cell
Ch. 1 Lesson 1
Ch. 3 Lesson 2
Ch. 1 Lesson 3
Ch. 2 Lesson 2
Parts of the Cell
(Cell Organelles)

Plant Cell
Cell Parts /Cell Organelles
www.freewebs.com- Plant cell
biology-pictures.blogspot.com- plant cell
biology-pictures.blogspot.com-animal cell
www.biologyjunction.com-animal cell
Nucleus, Nucleous, Ribosome, Mitochondria, Rough ER Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus, Vesicle, Cell membrance
Cytoskeloton, Cytoplasm, lysosomes.
Nucleus, Nucleous, Ribosome, Mitochondria, Rough ER Smooth ER, Golgi Apparatus, Vesicle, Cell membrance
Cytoskeloton, Cytoplasm, chloropast, central vacuole, cell wall, vacuoles, chlorophyll.
Organelle is in
Organelle only in plant cells
Organelle only in animal cells
Cells and Energy
Cellular Respiration

Reproduction is the process where organisms produce one or more new organisms. Not all organisms reproduce.
When organisms grow, they increase in size. When unicellular organisms grow there cell increases. When multicellular organisms grow the number of their cells increase.
When development occurs, multicellular organisms cells become specialized into different cell types. Other organisms develop in ways like a caterpillar to a butterfly.
All living things use energy for processing. By creating there own food, eating food or soaking up food living things get energy. For example plants like desert paintbrushes get energy from the sun, Pronghorns get energy from the plant, a mountain lion gets energy from the Pronghorns by eating it; this cycle goes on.
When living things maintain steady internal conditions.
For example cells need specific function properly to stay alive.
People need to drink water when they get hot, for example, when exercising to stay hydrated
Living things adapt and respond to changes in the environment. There are Internal stimuli, when you respond to feelings like hunger or thirst. Secondly External stimuli, is when your body reacts to the environment; for example your skin becomes red or darker when it is open to sunlight.
External stimuli.
Internal stimuli
Evolution is the process where living organisms develop throughout time. Charles Darwin said that all species have a common ancestor.
Adaptation is when organisms become better suited for their living environment.
The genetic code is when DNA and RNA molecules carry genetic information in living cells.
Most Prokaryotic cells are unicellular organisms called prokaryotes. The most important chacteristic is the genetic material which is not surrounded by a membrane. Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus or any specialized organelles such as bacteria and cyanobacteria.
0.1-10 micrometers
10-100 micrometers
Eukaryotic cells consist of a cell. Plants, animals, and fungi are all made up of Eukaryotic cells called eukaryotes. Genetic material is surrounded my a membrane and unlike Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and other organelles. Eukaryotic cells are usually larger than Prokaryotic cells.
etap.org -Eukaryotic
pulpbits.com -Prokaryotic
Rough ER
Central Vacuole
Cell Wall
Smooth ER
Golgi Apparatus
Cell membrance

Fermentation is a reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels aren't high.
Lactic-Acid and Alcohol fermentation both include glucose and ATP energy.
Lactic Acid waste product is lactic acid and alcohol fermentation is carbon dioxide and alcohol
Fermentation takes place without oxygen
Fermentation is the process of getting food from carbohydrates.
Products of Fermentation are CO2 and ethanol.
Both are ways that organisms make energy by breaking down glucose into energy.
Both require glucose
Both produce ATP
Cellular Respiration requires oxygen
Cellular Respiration is when electrons are put into oxygen
Cellular Respiration waste products are CO2 and water.
Cellular Respiration is a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into ATP. It is a hard process that takes place in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, two organelles in the cell.

Names and chemical formulas
Cellar Respiration first step is called glycolysis, it occurs in the cytoplasm and it is when sugar is broken down into smaller molecules, then glycolysis produces ATP. The second step of cellar Respiration occurs in the mitochondria, when smaller molecules made in glycolysis are broken down to make huge amounts of ATP. The cell uses ATP for to power. Two waste products are carbon dioxide and water.
Substances involved
Chemical reactions use substances in Cellular Respiration like sugar (glucose), ATP and smaller molecules.

Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions to convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the molecule glucose. Photosynthesis also gives oxygen.

Names and chemical formulas
Photosynthesis starts when light energy absorbs pigments such as chlorophyll. These chemical reactions occur in chloroplasts, and organelle in plant cells. During photosynthesis, light energy, water and carbon dioxide come together and make sugars. It produces oxygen which is let out into the atmosphere.

Substances involved
Chemical reactions use substances in photosynthesis like light energy, plants (chlorophyll), water, carbon dioxide, glucose, ATP energy, Mitochondrion.

A flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside the cell
A Cell wall is a stiff structure located outside the cell membrane, it protects any cell from virus and other harmful living things.

The watery substance, contains salts
and molecules.
A system of strands of proteins that join together
The Nucleus is the part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activities and contains genetic information stored in DNA.
It is the site of protein production.
The Smooth ER makes lipids like cholestrol. It is important because it helps remove harmful substances from the cell.
It is located inside the nucleus and is responsible for making ribosomes.
Organelles that use light energy and and make glucose, a sugar from water and CO2 in photosynthesis.
Organelles that store food, water, and waste products.
In typical plant cells, central vacuole is located it stores water and other substances.
It prepares proteins for their specific jobs or functions. Later, packs the proteins vesicles, tiny membrance-bound, sphere-like structures
Organelles that transport substances fom one area of the cell to another.
Vesicles in animal cells. They contain substances that help break down and recycle cellular components.
Cells in a human's heart include thousands of mitochondria organelles. The mitochondrion is surrounded by two membranes. In the mitochondria energy is released during chemical reactions. Energy is stored in ATP. (ATP fuel for cellular processes such as growth, cell division, anf material transport.
A ribosome is not surrounded by a membrane. They are in the cytoplasm and can also be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
- Nucleus
www.tutorvista.com- Nucleolus
en.wikipedia.org- ribosome
cellsorganelles.weebly.com - smooth ER
en.wikipedia.org -Rough ER
en.wikipedia.org - Golgi apparatus
en.wikipedia.org- vesicle
kids.britannica.com- centriole

www.tutorsglobe.com- cell membrance
-www.slideshare.net cytoskeloton
-www.slideshare.net mitochondria
-library.thinkquest.org- cytoplasm

-www.artinaid.com Chloroplast
en.wikipedia.org- vacuoles
www.shmoop.com- cell wall
micro.magnet.fsu.edu central vacuole
andraguilera560.blogspot.com- chlorophyll

science.howstuffworks.com- photosynthesis

Science book- fermentation
Science book- cellular respiration
Science book- photosynthesis
Cells and Energy

Made for cellular reproduction
A green pigment, present in all green plants and
in cyanobacteria, which is responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
Full transcript